48V データセンター

48V Data Center Solutions

Overview

Today’s datacenters use an average of 3kW to 5kW per rack to power server, storage, and networking racks. Most are designed to power basic CPUs to operate at high levels of efficiency. Hence, the traditional 12V power architecture has been widely accepted and implemented. 

As the demand for cloud computing, AI applications, and high-power processors and accelerators grows, datacenters are evolving to accommodate new high-power requirements. For example, an early AI market supercomputer required 3200W for the entire power system. The second generation’s power demand increased threefold, resulting in 10kW for the entire power system. Since the power lost in distributing high current increases by the square of the current (I2R), more copper must be used in the backplane or wiring harness to control the distribution losses. Ultimately, this limits the power delivery of the system.

In order to meet the industry’s new power requirements, MPS has developed a new power architecture, using a 48V distribution voltage that is capable of a 16x reduction in power distribution losses, in addition to presenting a 48V datacenter solution to address new design challenges.

Figure 1: Traditional 12V Power Distribution

MPS 48V Power Structure

48V Power Structure: MPS's New 48V to 4.8V System

Figure 2: 48V Power Structure – MPS 4V to 6V System

  • Total system efficiency is greatly optimized
  • First-stage solution: MPS LLC Power Modules
    • 10:1 input-to-output ratio
    • Offered at various power levels
    • Parallel operation
  • Second-stage solution: Digital multi-phase controller + low-voltage Intelli-PhaseTM
    • Low-voltage Intelli-PhaseTM products use patented technologies to boost performance including efficiency, power density, and overall performance while reducing losses from the power delivery network (PDN)
    • Low-voltage Intelli-PhaseTM devices offer MPS’s proprietary footprint, which helps reduce overall solution size

Intelli-PhaseTM is MPS’s state-of-the-art power stage. MPS’s DrMOS uses our monolithic process to drastically improve performance, and incorporates advanced features, including current sense, temperature sense, and fault reporting.

MPS 48V Power Structure: Reutilitize a 12V Legacy System

Figure 3: 48V Power Structure – MPS 10V to 5V System

  • Easiest method for 48V migration, as it can reuse an existing 12V system
  • First-stage solution: MPS LLC Power Modules, 4:1 input-to-output ratio or 4:1 STC Topology
  • Second-stage solution: Digital multi-phase controller + Intelli-PhaseTM
    • As part of the MPS portfolio, the Intelli-PhaseTM family offers continuous current ratings up to 90A
    • Intelli-PhaseTM devices are offered in a common footprint or an MPS proprietary footprint MPS 48V Power Structure

Topologies for 48V-to-12V Conversion

Two commonly seen topologies for 48V-to-12V conversion are LLC and STC. An LLC (inductor-inductor-capacitor) is a resonant topology comprised of two inductors and one capacitor. It allows for zero-current switching of the main switches, thereby dramatically lowering switching losses and boosting efficiency. See below for example of an LLC resonant converter.

An STC (switched-tank capacitor) is another resonant topology that primarily uses a network of capacitors to step down from a 48V input to 12V output. See example below of an STC converter.

Figure 4: LLC Converter

Figure 5: STC Converter

LLC and STC Comparison
LLCSTC
Good for any current/power application Good for applications below 500W

Overall performance:

- High power density

- Low PDN loss

- Efficiency when using a 10:1 power

Overall performance:

- Lower power density

- Higher PDN  loss

- Comparable efficiency to a 4:1 LLC

Scalable and interchangeable Well-understood topology
Smaller overall solution size Larger overall solution size
LLC and STC Comparison
LLC
Good for any current/power application

Overall performance:

- High power density

- Low PDN loss

- Efficiency when using a 10:1 power

Scalable and interchangeable
Smaller overall solution size
STC
Good for applications below 500W

Overall performance:

- Lower power density

- Higher PDN  loss

- Comparable efficiency to a 4:1 LLC

Well-understood topology
Larger overall solution size

First-Stage Solution: Power Modules

MPC1100-54 - High-efficiency, Non-Isolated, Fixed-Ratio Digital DC/DC 300W Power Module

The MPC1100-54 is an open-frame digital DC/DC power module with continuous power, up to 300W. This module accepts up to a 60V input, and is configured in a 10:1 input-to-output ratio. It offers a digital controller with multiple-time programmability (MTP), which can be easily configured to quickly bring up the system and nimbly adapt to system requirements.

Figure 6: MPC1100-54-xxxx

MPC1102-54 - High-efficiency, Non-Isolated, Fixed-Ratio Digital DC/DC 500W Power Module

The MPC1102-54 is an open-frame digital DC/DC power module with continuous power, up to 500W.This module accepts up to a 60V input, and is configured in a 10:1 input-to-output ratio. It offers a digital controller with multiple-time programmability (MTP), which can be easily configured to quickly bring up the system and nimbly adapt to system requirements.

Figure 7: MPC1102-54-xxxx

MPC11057-54-0750 - High-efficiency, Non-Isolated, Fixed-Ratio Digital DC/DC 750W Power Module

The MPC11057-54-0750 is an open-frame digital DC/DC power module with continuous power, up to 750W. This module accepts up to a 60V input, and is configured in a 10:1 input-to-output ratio. It offers a digital controller with multiple-time programmability (MTP), which can be easily configured to quickly bring up the system and nimbly adapt to system requirements.

Figure 8: MPC11057-54-0750-xxxx

MPC12106-54-0750 - High-efficiency, Non-Isolated, Fixed-Ratio Digital DC/DC 750W Power Module

The MPC12106-54-0750 is an open-frame digital DC/DC power module with continuous power, up to 750W. This module accepts up to a 60V input, and is configured in a 4:1 input-to-output ratio. It offers a digital controller with multiple-time programmability (MTP), which can be easily configured to quickly bring up the system and nimbly adapt to system requirements.

Second-Stage Solution: Digital Multi-Phase Controller + Intelli-PhaseTM

MPS has a robust product portfolio for digital multi-phase controllers and Intelli-PhaseTM solutions. For more information, visit Server & Telecom.

Figure 9: Second-Stage Digital Multi-Phase Controller + Intelli-PhaseTM Block Diagram

  • Digital Multi-Phase Controller Features:
    • Patented Constant-On-Time (COT) Control
    • Multiple Loops, Flexible Phase Assignment
    • Interface Options: SVIC, SVI2/3, OVR, or AVSBus and PMBus
    • Fault Handling and Telemetry Capabilities
  • Intelli-Phase Features:
    • Family of Device Ranges from 10A to 90A
    • Wide fsw Range: Balance between Transient and Efficiency
    • Built-In ZCD, OCP, NOCP, OTP, and SCP
    • Minimal External Components
Product Info.
Power StructureType of ProductPart NumberPart Description
12V legacy & MPS's new 4V to 6V architecture Digital multi-phase controller

MP2888A

MP2882 (contact for sample)

MP2973 (contact for sample)

Single-loop, 10-phase multi-phase controller

Dual-loop, 16-phase digiatal mult-phase controller

Dual-loop, 12-phase digital multi-phase controller

12V legacy architecture

Intelli-PhaseTM

MP86956

MP86936

16V, 70A Intelli-Phase in 5mmx6mm package

16V, 60A Intelli-Phase in 3mmx6mm package

MPS's new 4V to 6V architecture Intelli-PhaseTM

MP86972 (contact for sample)

MP86976 (contact for sample)

12V, 60A Intelli-Phase in 3mmx6mm package

7V, 70A Intelli-Phase in 3mmx6mm package

Product Info.
Power Structure 12V legacy & MPS's new 4V to 6V architecture
Type of ProductPart Description
Digital multi-phase controller

MP2888A

Single-loop, 10-phase multi-phase controller

MP2882

Dual-loop, 16-phase digiatal mult-phase controller

(contact for sample)

MP2973

Dual-loop, 12-phase digital multi-phase controller

(contact for sample)

Power Structure 12V legacy architecture
Type of ProductPart Description

Intelli-PhaseTM

MP86956

16V, 70A Intelli-Phase in 5mmx6mm package

MP86936

16V, 60A Intelli-Phase in 3mmx6mm package

Power Structure MPS's new 4V to 6V architecture
Type of ProductPart Description
Intelli-PhaseTM

MP86972

12V, 60A Intelli-Phase in 3mmx6mm package

(contact for sample)

MP86976

7V, 70A Intelli-Phase in 3mmx6mm package

(contact for sample)

MPS 48V Datacenter Solutions

  • Whether the ultimate decision is to:
    • Completely redesign using a 48V power architecture,
    • Migrate from a 12V to a 48V power architecture, or
    • Reutilize an existing 12V legacy architecture

MPS has developed a comprehensive product portfolio to address the industry’s new, demanding power requirements. Our 48V datacenter solution was designed to resolve power distribution loss and to maintain high power density and efficiency in space-constrained environments. The table below summarizes a 48V power structure that is a 600W, 20-phase multi-phase power design employing different topologies.

Product Info.
Power StructureTopologyTotal size (mm2)Power Density (W/in3)PDN Resistance (µΩ)PDN Loss @600W (W)First-Stage Efficiency @600WSecond-Stage Efficiency @600WTotal Efficiency@600W (including PDN loss)
12V legacy  architecture 4:1 LLC+ 20-phase 5mmx6mm Intelli-PhaseTM

4240

91.3

200

72

48V to 12V: 92.0%

12V to 0.8V: 92.0%

2V to 0.8V: 81.4%

MPS's new 4V to 6V architecture 10:1 LLC+ 20-phase 3mmx6mm Intelli-PhaseTM

1972

196.3

50

18

48V to 4.8V: 97.4%

48V to 0.8V: 91.1%

48V to 0.8V: 86.4%

Product Info.
Power Structure 12V legacy  architecture MPS's new 4V to 6V architecture
Topology 4:1 LLC+ 20-phase 5mmx6mm Intelli-PhaseTM 10:1 LLC+ 20-phase 3mmx6mm Intelli-PhaseTM
Total size (mm2)

4240

1972

Power Density (W/in3)

91.3

196.3

PDN Resistance (µΩ)

200

50

PDN Loss @600W (W)

72

18

First-Stage Efficiency @600W

48V to 12V: 92.0%

48V to 4.8V: 97.4%

Second-Stage Efficiency @600W

12V to 0.8V: 92.0%

48V to 0.8V: 91.1%

Total Efficiency@600W (including PDN loss)

2V to 0.8V: 81.4%

48V to 0.8V: 86.4%

More MPS Products for 48V Datacenter Solutions

In addition to servicing high-current and high-power applications, MPS has an extensive product portfolio that includes point-of-load (PoL) step-down converters and protection devices, such as Intelli-Fuse, to fulfill a greater range of power applications needs for 48V datacenter design.

Figure 10: MPS Power Products for 48V Datacenter Design

Product Info.
Type of ProductPart NumberPart Description
Point-of-load (PoL) step-down converter

MPQ8645P

MP9940B (contact for sample)

MPQ8633A/B

MPQ8626

16v, 30A, scalable, digital, synchronous step-down converter with PMBus

Digital, 15A, SVID step-down converter with PMBus for VR13 and IMVP8/9

16V, 12A/20A, high-efficiency, sychronous step-down converter with adjustable current limi, programmable frequency, and voltage tracking

16V, 6A, high-efficiency, sychronous step-down converter with adjustable current limit

Intelli-Fuse

MP5048 (contact for sample)

MP5921

MP5023

60V, 15A, 7mΩ hot-swap Intelli-Fuse solution

16V, 50A, 1mΩ RDS(ON) hot-swap Intelli-Fuse solution

16V, 50A, 1.1 hot-swap Intelli-Fuse solution with PMBus

Product Info.
Type of ProductPart Description
Point-of-load (PoL) step-down converter

MPQ8645P

16v, 30A, scalable, digital, synchronous step-down converter with PMBus

MP9940B

Digital, 15A, SVID step-down converter with PMBus for VR13 and IMVP8/9

(contact for sample)

MPQ8633A/B

16V, 12A/20A, high-efficiency, sychronous step-down converter with adjustable current limi, programmable frequency, and voltage tracking

MPQ8626

16V, 6A, high-efficiency, sychronous step-down converter with adjustable current limit

Intelli-Fuse

MP5048

60V, 15A, 7mΩ hot-swap Intelli-Fuse solution

(contact for sample)

MP5921

16V, 50A, 1mΩ RDS(ON) hot-swap Intelli-Fuse solution

MP5023

16V, 50A, 1.1 hot-swap Intelli-Fuse solution with PMBus

Article

Increasing the Power Density and Efficacy of Datacenters Using a Two-Stage Solution for 48V Power Distribution

Powering Datacenters with Digital Multi-Phase Controllers

Video

48V-1V for CPU, SoC or ASIC power controller.