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Understanding Quiescent Current and Shutdown Current with a Boost Converter

This article uses the MP28600, a step-up (boost) converter, to describe the differences between quiescent current and shutdown current, which can be optimized in battery-powered applications. As electrical devices become more intelligent and diverse with the evolution of Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices, portable applications, medical instruments, and industrial sensors, low power consumption and a small size are paramount. MPS provides a robust portfolio of converters to meet any application’s needs.

March 2023
Designing the Feedback Voltage Resistor Divider in a DC/DC Converter

To optimize the FB routing in the FB voltage resistor divider in a DC/DC converter, it is important to keep the first element as short as possible and to directly connect the second element on the same side. Ensure that there are no interference sources such as switches, inductors, and an unclean groundFor more details, explore MPS’s wide selection of switching converters and controllers.

March 2023
Digitizing Scanning X-Ray Images Using the MDC91128, an Analog-to-Digital Converter

The MDC91128 provides a combination of configurability, high performance, and integration to provide cost-effective, high-quality images for scanning x-ray systems and industrial imaging. MPS provides a growing family of data converters that can be used to x-ray imaging, data acquisition systems, and mobile communication.

March 2023
Power over Ethernet (PoE) Power Supply Process Across IEEE 802.3af/at/bt Protocol

This article reviews PoE power supplies and the cable structure inside the network port, then describes the standard PoE power supply process. MPS offers a variety of PoE PD interfaces for the IEEE 802.3 af/at/bt protocol, including the MP8007, MP8017, MP8009, and MP8030.

February 2023
Optimizing Power Supply Efficiency with MOSFET Selection

This article introduces how to select the appropriate HS-FET and LS-FET ratio through accurate mathematical modeling to optimize your power supply’s efficiency. For more information, MPS’s MOSFET drivers and power supply solutions can be found online.

February 2023
Developing a Battery Management System Solution for ESS

Energy storage is essential to advance power systems as well as goals for reaching a carbon peak and achieving carbon neutrality. To meet the growing demands of energy storage, designers must address the limitations of the BMS such as battery monitoring accuracy, developing fuel gauge algorithms, and ensuring battery safety. Monolithic Power System provides an effective battery management solution using the MP2797 combined with the MPF4279x fuel gauge series to boost energy storage and overcome challenges with the BMS.

February 2023
USB Type-C Charging Connectors: Design, Optimization, and Interoperability

USB Type-C connectors (also called USB-C connectors) are versatile, incredibly small compared to older connectors, backwards compatible with older USB standards, and can deliver high power up to 240W. By following the specifications for USB Type-C and USB PD and optimizations discussed in this article, manufacturers help maintain interoperability between products, provide protections that can extend the product’s lifetime, and contribute to the EU’s goal for e-waste reduction. Although the common charger mandate in the EU is a recent development, MPS has been creating charger ICs and battery management devices designed to cover a wide range of USB Type-C and USB PD applications. Buyers and manufacturers for portable applications can benefit from our extensive portfolio as USB Type-C connectors become more and more common worldwide.

January 2023
How to Design a Thermally Balanced Current-Sharing System for Multi-Phase Power Designs

New automotive designs are adopting 48V power management systems to reduce weight and power loss in the vehicle’s cable harnesses. Moreover, to withstand high loads, the use of interleaved topologies is important for the increase in required power. When using interleaved topologies, excellent thermal distribution is necessary to balance the MOSFET degradation. This article presents a simple and easy thermal-balancing circuit combined with the MPQ2908A-AEC1, which improves current sharing and temperature distribution in multi-phase designs, and meets standardized EMC requirements, such as CISPR 25 Class 5. The temperature difference between the multi-phase converter phases can be effectively reduced from 2°C to 0.5°C using well-known and commonly used components.

December 2022
Magnetic Angle Sensors: Resolution Explained

This article explains the definition of resolution starting from the description of random error and the statistical concepts of standard deviation and confidence. It also clarifies the difference between the digital representation (number of bits provided on the sensor output) and the resolution of the sensor measurement, in case this is provided in digital form. By showing the effect of filtering, the article proves that both resolution and bandwidth must be considered to determine a product’s real performance. Finally, this article provides an example of a typical magnetic angle sensor datasheet to show how to correctly interpret the information contained in it.

December 2022
A Thermally Optimized, Two-Layer Automotive PCB Design to Meet CISPR25 Class 5

It is possible to create a cost-effective, 2-layer PCB design that can perform well in harsh environments. A low-cost design can pass the EMI test with CISPR25 and OEM limits with sufficient margin, which we have demonstrated using the MPQ4323-AEC1. In this automotive PCB design, the IC can achieve close to full output operation under ambient temperatures that are approximately 100°C when operating at 400kHz, and approximately 80°C when operating at 2.2MHz when given a sufficient copper area for dissipation. MPS has designed a thermal enhanced lead frame for higher efficiency, resulting in a thermally superior solution that can work within compact and space-constrained systems.

November 2022
How the Common Footprint (CFP) will Negatively Impact the PC Market

Rather than relying on the old paradigm of CFP, the PC power delivery market needs to evolve and adopt a new model for COS. One such approach is for the existing suppliers to license their IP, which would enable new vendors to manufacture that suppliers’ parts. This would provide a new supply source of parts identical to the unique design adopted by the tier 1 suppliers, and would not require any additional validation. The PC market is driven by revolutionary changes, and it is time the supply chain changes with it.

November 2022
Improving Battery Safety with the MP2797

The MP2797 offers high-precision battery voltage and current monitoring, temperature monitoring, cell balancing, and comprehensive protection features. As lithium battery safety becomes more important for battery-powered applications, MPS will continue to provide a wide range of battery management system monitoring and protection solutions that guarantee safety and boost battery lifespan.

October 2022
Bipolar Stepper Motors (Part II): Microstepping and Decay Modes

Microstepping allows for finer positioning and smoother operation compared to full-step or half-step mode. This article discusses how slow decay and fast decay between steps can be used to stabilize the current. In addition, combining these decay modes can decrease torque ripple, which reduces vibration and noise. MPS offers a wide array of stepper motor drivers to meet your application needs.

October 2022
Designing Cooler Running, Multi-Channel Dynamic Automotive Lights

Multi-beam technology is an important advancement for the automotive sector — by adapting the high beam to the road layout and environment, the additional illumination allows drivers to feel more secure in low-visibility situations. However, the lighting design for multi-beam technologies presents some challenges that can be mitigated by selecting an optimal LED driver. For this article, the MPQ7225-AEC1 was selected due to its great scalability, EMIs reduction techniques, and its robust communication options. When designing a multi-beam system, thermals are a high priority, so it is recommended to introduce techniques such as AFC and dimming.

October 2022
Integrated Drivers vs. Gate Drivers for Motor Driving

The choice between monolithic motor drivers and a gate driver with external MOSFET solutions to drive motors is complex. Tradeoffs between cost, solution size, and thermal characteristics must be considered. For very small motors, monolithic drivers are the best solution. Likewise, for very high-power motors, a solution using gate drivers and discrete MOSFETs should be used. However, there is a large overlap between both solutions, so designers should consider the specifications of their application when making their choice. For more information, see MPS motor driver solutions.

October 2022
Bipolar Stepper Motors (Part I): Control Modes

This article reviews the basic components of a bipolar stepper motor (the stator and rotor), as well as the three primary control modes: single-phase, full-step, and half-step stepping. Part II will discuss microstepping for the dual full-bridge drive. MPS offers a wide array of stepper motor drivers to meet your application needs.

October 2022
Designing a Power Tree for an Automotive SoC

Selecting the correct pre-regulator for an ADAS system is not an easy task. Using an IC that allows its output to be paralleled in a multi-phase topology makes this design more straightforward. The scalable solution using the MPQ4360-AEC1 and MPQ5850-AEC1 allows each rail to meet its required output current in a small area, while reducing BOM cost. For additional reading, refer to the following article to learn more about automotive transients.

October 2022
How to Optimize a Power over Ethernet (PoE) PD Design

PoE is an innovative concept that continuously rises to meet the growing power demands of modern technology. Despite its general reliability, it can be difficult for designers to maintain a high efficiency with these solutions, though implementing a few optimization methods can help mitigate these issues. The MP8017 confirms that selecting optimal transformers, snubbers, and output capacitors — as well as implementing frequency dithering and integrating components onto a single die — are effective methods to guarantee efficient without hindering performance.

October 2022
Developing a Smart Cockpit Solution with MPS and Semidrive

The advancement of the automotive smart cockpit’s SoC technology will require increased computing power, main frequency, and dynamic response speed. It will also require single-phase and multi-phase solutions with a higher IOUT and additional safety features. These combined factors can present challenges when selecting and designing power chips. To address these challenges, MPS and Semidrive developed a smart cockpit solution with the X9H reference board. This article then explores a two-level power supply scheme to improve the system’s conversion efficiency and support battery voltage fluctuations, in addition to the backlight drive scheme. Based on the ongoing developments in the vehicle power supply industry, MPS continues to innovate and launch products for a competitive portfolio that leads the smart cockpit revolution. To learn more about our automotive-grade products such as the MPQ2179-AEC1, click here.

August 2022
Designing a PFC Circuit to Reduce Harmonic Distortion

In this article, we discuss the relationship between PF and THD, and obtain a high PF value using a boost APFC circuit. Integrating a PFC circuit in a power supply design minimizes total harmonic distortion and increases the larger power utilization rate, which leads to an overall lower power supply cost. MPS offers a selection of PFC controllers to meet harmonic current requirements and improve power quality. These PFC controllers offer an integrated design with proprietary packaging technology and high efficiency.

August 2022
How to Design a Battery Management System (BMS)

Battery-powered applications have become commonplace over the last decade, and such devices require a certain level of protection to ensure safe usage. The battery management system (BMS) monitors the battery and possible fault conditions, preventing the battery from situations in which it can degrade, fade in capacity, or even potentially harm the user or surrounding environment. It is also the responsibility of the BMS to provide an accurate state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) estimate to ensure an informative and safe user experience over the lifetime of the battery.

August 2022
MPS Power Management Solutions for Power over Ethernet (PoE) Switches

Modern devices are increasingly powered by Power over Ethernet (PoE), such as IP phones, wireless APs, and IP cameras. Customer premise equipment (CPE) and small base stations in the 5G era also require PoE power. This article discusses MPS’s comprehensive suite of power management solutions for a wide range of switches, including PSE, boost, high-voltage buck/flyback, high-current buck, and 2A to 3A buck.

August 2022
Feasibility and Accuracy Analysis of Input Power Estimation for Boost PFC Converters with Additional Sensors

This paper studies the feasibility of implementing active input power estimation without any additional sensors for boost PFC converter. The analysis in this paper accounts for the influence of parasitic effects, such as turn-on and turn-off delays, DCM oscillation, transition between DCM and CCM, and active power loss on passive components. Based on the mathematical modeling of the system and parasitic effects, an algorithm for accurately estimating the input power has been proposed. It takes the characteristics of the mainstream multi-mode PFC control scheme into consideration, and is able to support a wide operating range. The proposed estimation approach has been verified by experimental results on a 400W boost PFC prototype based on the HR1211GY. As digital PFC controllers are becoming more and more popular in practical applications, this study provides a possible approach to reduce system complexity and cost, as well as to improve reliability for power supply products in the future, by implementing basic power metering functions without adding any additional sensors.

July 2022
Designing a Reverse Polarity Protection Circuit (Part II)

To pass the various test standards for pulse interferences, it is important to achieve an optimal reverse polarity protection circuit design. Compared to the traditional P-channel MOSFET circuit, the N-channel MOSFET circuit improves driver current capability and EMC performance. In particular, the MPQ5850-AEC1 provides reverse input protection and passes the national EMC standards. For more details, explore MPS’s load switches and supervisors, which lead the industry with simple-to-use and safe solutions in compact packages.

July 2022
Designing a Reverse Polarity Protection Circuit (Part I)

In this article, we reviewed the traditional P-channel MOSFET reverse polarity protection circuit and its key disadvantages, including large system standby current and backflow current. Part II will discuss the advantages of designing a reverse polarity protection circuit design using an N-channel MOSFET and buck-boost driver IC.

July 2022
A Brief Primer on MPSafeTM, MPS’s Process to Functional Safety Automotive Development

MPS’s safety-oriented mindset generates system architectures that are not only secure, but customizable and quick to market. The introduction of MPSafeTM helps to avoid human mistakes to ensure that MPS devices meet safety requirements with ease. This procedure enables us to produce automotive products that are ready to meet the increasingly stringent certifications for automotive safety. Future parts will include precision sensors, digitally programmable power converters, motor drivers, voltage monitors and sequencers for high-current solutions, LED drivers, and much more.

July 2022
Understanding LLC Operation (Part II): What to Consider in LLC Converter Design

Designing an LLC converter is a long and complex process that involves a myriad of considerations according to the specific application requirements. Due to the large number of parameters and the relationships between these parameters, the design process typically spans many iterations and calculations that can lead to lengthy design times. MPS offers tools such as the MPS LLC Designer and the MPF32010, a configurable LLC controller, to significantly accelerate the development process.

July 2022
Drive Safe: Isolated Gate Drivers for High-Power Applications

The increased switching frequency brought about by the introduction of WBG semiconductors paired with increased power requirements has made isolation a key factor in power converter design. High isolation and CMTI ratings are key to ensure that users and devices connected to the power supply are not harmed by accidental current leakage. Protections features such as desaturation protection and active Miller clamps keep the MOSFETs operating safely. MPS offers a wide variety of isolated gate drivers such as the MP18831, a dual-channel driver specifically designed for half-bridge converter topologies with configurable dead-time control. To learn more about our isolated power products, visit the Isolation product category page.

June 2022
DC Fast Charging System: Maximizing Power Density with an LLC Transformer Driver

High-frequency LLC power supplies are typically more difficult to implement and optimize in designs than low-frequency converters, but devices like the MPQ18913 simplify LLC power supplies with features including automatic resonant frequency detection and integrated transistors. In addition, LLC resonant topologies reduce solution size, which increases power density for high-power charging stations such as those used for charging electric vehicles. As electric charging infrastructure continues to improve, look out for the MPQ18913 being used to bias SiC FETs in high-power charging applications, as well as automotive applications such as on-board chargers, traction inverters, and DC/DC converters.

June 2022
Understanding Power Inductor Parameters

There are a wide variety of inductors on the market for different applications, and it can be difficult to select the optimal inductor. For example, larger-value inductors reduce DC losses an improve efficiency, but they are physically larger and they retain more heat. Because there is no one-size-fits-all inductor, it is vital to understand each inductor’s parameters, as well as the relationships between different parameters. This can help designers determine how an inductor would perform in a particular DC/DC application, and aid in inductor selection when looking at MPS’s semi-shielded inductors and molded inductors.

June 2022
Why Microstepping Isn't as Good as You Think

When designing a motion control system using stepper motors, do not assume that the rated holding torque of the motor still applies when microstepping, as the incremental torque is reduced substantially. This can result in unexpected positioning errors, which were demonstrated by the tests above. In some cases, increasing the microstep resolution does not improve system accuracy. To overcome these limitations, it is recommended to minimize the torque load on the motor, or to use a motor that has a higher rated holding torque. Oftentimes, the best solution is to design the mechanical system to use larger step increments, and not to rely on fine microstepping. Stepper motor drivers like the MP6500 can use a 1/8-step to provide the same mechanical performance as traditional, costlier microstepping drivers.

June 2022
Load-Line Design for a Multi-Phase Buck Converter

Server and computing applications require power supplies that can handle large, sudden shifts in current while meeting strict VOUT regulation requirements. Using the MP2965 digital controller to implement a PMBus-configurable load line, this article demonstrates the benefits of load-line control, such as improved efficiency and improved power supply transient response performance. This article also explains how implementing a DC load line reduces the minimum required bulk capacitance, allowing designers to reduce overall cost and minimize board space while still meeting specifications for server applications.

June 2022
Developing a Millimeter-Wave Radar Power Supply

Among automotive radar technology, millimeter-wave radar achieves powerful detection performance for the advancement of autonomous driving. In this article, we review a discrete power supply solution using the Calterah Alps series and the MPQ4420A-AEC1, MPQ2166A-AEC1, and MPQ2171-AEC1. MPS is a forward-thinking power supply manufacturer that continues to create innovative solutions for a wide array of applications.

June 2022
Introducing the MP8017: An Ultra-Small IEEE 802.3af PoE PD Solution

The growing demand for PoE power supplies led to the development of the MP8017. Using the MP8017, designers can effectively optimize the six large modules of the PoE flyback. With features such as high integration, reduced external component count, smaller size, and active-clamp control, this flyback controverter is setting PoE trends in the industry.

May 2022
Understanding LLC Operation (Part I): Power Switches and Resonant Tank

Understanding how an LLC resonant tank operates is crucial when designing an LLC converter. The tank’s resonant characteristics make the LLC converter so popular, since this converter can maintain efficient and stable operation across a wide load and power range. However, this resonance also forces designers to be very careful when designing the circuit parameters, since the tank’s gain response depends on a multitude of parameters, including the load and the converter’s operating point (see Equation (7)). Design tools such as the MPS LLC Designer are ideal for speeding up LLC design, allowing users to quickly iterate through different gains and frequencies and calculate the necessary component values for their design.

May 2022
Introducing the MP5031: A USB Power Delivery (PD) Controller

This article reviews the MP5031’s features, and how these features improve on traditional control chips. Advantages include (but are not limited to) configurable PDOs, compatibility with various mainstream protocols, CDP mode, protections, and GPIO pins. In addition, we discuss customized solutions for the MP5031 using the MP4247 and MP2491C. Explore MPS’s power management solutions and broad portfolio of buck-boost converters that offer design flexibility, superior performance, and high power efficiency.

May 2022
Measuring High-Frequency, Common-Mode Current, Voltage, and Impedance (Part III)

Throughout this three-part series, we went into depth on measuring high-frequency, CM current, voltage, and impedance in a flyback converter topology. By reviewing the basic principles of radiated EMI and addressing sources of measurement errors, we successfully obtained the CM impedance and CM noise voltage in flyback converters. In summary, accurate radiated EMI analysis prevents common mistakes when measuring key parameters, including voltage, current, impedance.

May 2022
Measuring High-Frequency, Common-Mode Current, Voltage, and Impedance (Part II)

This article introduces a ferrite bead solution to avoid CM current measurement errors that arise from the influence of coupling and grounded impedance. In continuation of our analysis of measuring high-frequency, CM current, we also cover how to obtain CM impedance using a network analysis model, π model, and by calculating the primary CM voltage.

May 2022
Determining Accurate State of Charge with the MPF4279x Series (Part II)

With the increasing demand of battery-based applications, accurate SoC estimation is crucial for effective battery management. In this article, we discuss common challenges to estimating SoC and expanded on the voltage-current hybrid method with the MPF4279x series, a new family of fuel gauges designed for a wide range of applications. Explore MPS’s robust portfolio of battery management solutions for more charging solutions.

May 2022
Determining Accurate State of Charge with the MPF4279x Series (Part I)

This article introduces the concept of SoC estimates, as well as the challenges in obtaining an accurate SoC. We also discuss one method to estimate SoC. Part II will expand on the other two methods and explain the benefits of using the MPF4279x series to accurately measure the SoC.

April 2022
MPS's Isolated Medium- and High-Power Power Supply Products

MPS continues to launch reliable and efficient products for medium- and high-power power supply applications. This article introduces a variety of devices, such as a totem-pole PFC controller, isolated power supply module, and an isolated current sensor. The broad selection of MPS products helps power designers advance power supply solutions with improved performance and response, in addition to smaller size, lower cost, and shorter development cycle.

April 2022
Designing a Module for High-Speed Optical Communication

In this article, we review MPS optical module solutions to achieve high-speed optical communication in the F5G gigabit era. These solutions include the MPM38x4C series (including the MPM3814C, MPM3824C, and MPM3834C), MPM3860, MPM4710, MP5418 and MP5418A, and the MP8833A. In addition, MPS provides solutions for laser diodes that convert electrical signals into optical signals, such as VCSEL, DFB, and EML. For more information, explore MPS’s robust portfolio of power modules and monolithic design of optical modules.

April 2022
Building Power Systems with the MP188xx Isolated Gate Driver Series

In this article, we reviewed the features and advantages of the MP188xx family, a series of isolated gate drivers including the MP18831, MP18851, and MP18871. Isolated gate drivers are critical to driving switch tubes in power systems. To learn more about MPS isolation products, read our article on MPS’s isolated power solutions that promote carbon neutrality.

April 2022
Photovoltaic Charging Solution with MP2731

To advance green electricity and other renewable energy initiatives, MPS provides a variety of solutions to maintain uninterrupted system operation under various lighting conditions. In this article, we introduce the MP2731 as a photovoltaic charging solution that overcomes the limitations of common applications. Explore MPS’s other battery management solutions that offer fast charging, accuracy, safety, and easy customization.

April 2022
The Power Over Ethernet (PoE) Powered MP8030

This article covers the evolution of the PoE standard and the features offered by the MP8030, such as IEEE 802.3af/at/bt functionality. The MP8030 is an excellent bt solution with benefits including simplified design, high efficiency, flexible isolation design options, excellent thermal performance, and EMI compliance.

April 2022
Transforming the Low-Carbon Era with MPS's AC/DC Power Solutions (Part II)

MPS has accumulated a comprehensive portfolio of products in the AC/DC field, with popular power solutions such as the MPX2002 and the HR1211. As the requirements of switching power supplies become more complex, MPS will meet consumer demands with increasingly efficient and advanced products. To read about the carbon-free era and the issues designers face in this era, see Part I of this series.

April 2022
Transforming the Low-Carbon Era with MPS's AC/DC Power Solutions (Part I)

As the world trends toward carbon neutrality, designers will have to meet increasing demands for highly efficient power supplies that are smaller and more effective. MPS is making it simple to meet these increasingly stringent requirements with our small and efficient AC/DC power supplies, such as the MPX2001. This article introduced the issues faced by power supply designers and a few high-level ways to mitigate these problems. Part II will discuss how MPS is directly facing these problems with an in-depth look at our latest products.

April 2022
Elevating High-Density Adapter Designs with Integrated Capacitive Isolation

The integration of capacitive isolation surpasses the expectations for traditional solutions that use optocouplers. In particular, flyback controllers such as the MPX2002 and MPX2003 demonstrate the effectiveness of integrated solutions with their tiny size, high efficiency, and layout flexibility. Overall, integration provides multiple benefits, such as more accurate synchronization between the SR and primary-side switching, reduced component count, and a more compact layout. In addition, these solutions enable the implementation of a more advanced control scheme to further improve efficiency and power density, which will pave the way for future high-power density adapters.

April 2022
Battery Charger Fundamentals

MPS’s battery charger solutions cover a wide range of high-performance ICs that can complement any battery powered application from single-cell chargers to battery chargers with two series cells or more than three series cell chargers. There are many variables to consider when deciding on a battery charger IC, such as the charging profile, charger topology (e.g. switching or linear chargers), power-path management structure, battery cell configurations, and safety features (e.g. watchdog timer and JEITA temperature monitoring). Once a designer understands how these parameters affect their system and the specifications of their battery, they will be able to select the optimal battery charger IC.

March 2022
Power Supply Design for Car Infotainment Systems (Part II)

Following our review of primary and secondary power supplies in Part I, Part II proposes solutions for requirement challenges faced by camera power supplies and USB charging. The MPQ8873-AEC1 is used as a solution for surround-view camera modules, while the MPQ4228-C-AEC1 is used to mitigate USB charging challenges. MPS offers a robust and flexible portfolio of products that provide numerous advantages for the design of modern car infotainment systems.

March 2022
Power Supply Design for Car Infotainment Systems (Part I)

Power supply design is an important consideration for developing advanced car infotainment systems. This article reviews the requirements and advantages of primary power supplies with the MPQ4436A and secondary power supplies with the MPQ2166A. Part II will address challenges for camera power supplies and USB charging.

March 2022
Improving Isolated Power Modules with the MID06W0505A Series

MPS is committed to introducing isolated power modules that meet the growing demands for safety, power density, and reliability. In this article, we discuss how the MID06W0505A-3 overcomes the limitations of traditional power modules, in addition to addressing challenges such as magnetic interference and fluctuating VOUT. These are all key considerations for powering various signal isolator and industry applications.

March 2022
Developing a Multi-Port Fast-Charge Solution with the HR1211

This article discusses the features of the popular HR1211, which offers flexibility, stability, and fast transient response. It then addresses the challenges of speed reduction during multi-port fast-charge by analyzing Innosecco’s 200W fast-charge solution that uses the HR1211 and MP6924. MPS continues to lead the market with cutting-edge power solutions that meet consumer demands for greater power and efficiency.

March 2022
Measuring High-Frequency, Common-Mode Current, Voltage, and Impedance (Part I)

This article reviews the basic principles of radiated EMI, discusses the key parameters of the radiation model (i.e. the antenna impedance), and describes a method to calculate radiated EMI. Then this article examines the traditional method to measure ICM in a flyback converter topology.

March 2022
Planning for Sudden Power Failures with the MP5515

Protecting SSDs against sudden power failure is critical to maintain the stable operation of many devices connected in series. MPS continues to expand on this market by launching energy storage solutions, such as the MP5515, which are designed to protect solid-state drives against sudden power failure and ensure long-term stable operation.

March 2022
How Integration Is Advancing Innovations in Power Management

Regardless of what design parameter needs to be optimized, MPS has a wide variety of solutions that can be optimized for thermals or smaller solution size. The adaptability of these MPS solutions ensure that there will always be integrated, high power density products ready to meet the ever-increasing specifications and needs of the quickly growing power management industry. These devices provide configurable parameters, uniquely small package sizes, and innovative features for a flexible design.

February 2022
Comparative Study of PFC Topologies: Interleaved Boost vs. Totem-Pole PFC Topologies

This article uses simulations and key comparison parameters to illustrate the main characteristics of interleaved boost, totem-pole, and interleaved totem-pole PFC topologies, with the intent of helping designers select the best topology for their application. The simplicity of boost PFC topology has made it the go-to solution for most designers. However, boost PFC suffers from lower efficiency in high-power applications. In these cases, a totem-pole PFC topology may be preferable despite the added complexity. The introduction of integrated totem-pole controllers such as the MPF32010 have greatly simplified the implementation of totem-pole PFC converters.

February 2022
Designing a Multi-Phase Buck Converter with Digital Controllers

Due to the demanding performance requirements of server systems, multi-phase buck converters are necessary in most server and computing designs in order to meet transient response requirements and be able to withstand large currents. The MP2965 dual-channel, multi-phase controller offers great design flexibility and a fast transient response with minimal output capacitors, and the MP86945A power stage integrates drivers and MOSFET to ensure high efficiency and performance.

February 2022
Designing a Brushless DC Motor Driver with the MP6540

In this article, we review the advantages of the MP6540 series, including the MP6540A, MP6540H, and the MP6540HA. Advantages include — but are not limited to — high integration, excellent heat dissipation, adaptability, and fast current measurement.

February 2022
MPS Design Assistant Tool

MPS’s improved Design Assistant provides strategic advantages that shorten the development process. This article explores AC/DC Design Assistant with the MPX2001, and verifies its set-up process and functionality. Moreover, the MPS website includes Design Assistant files for other circuits, such as LLC applications and LR design.

January 2022
Optimized Backlight Display Design with the MPQ3367

In this article, we review the MPQ3367’s available dimming modes to regulate the output current, frequency spread spectrum for EMC performance, and high efficiency due to the integrated low on resistance MOSFET. As one of MPS’s leading backlight chips, the MPQ3367 effectively achieves a fully functional, integrated, and high-power solution.

January 2022
From Cold Crank to Load Dump: A Primer on Automotive Transients

This article covers a basic understanding of critical automotive transient conditions that must be addressed by a typical automotive module to allow an automotive system engineer to design a robust solution. While designing a reliable power circuit for extreme conditions can be challenging, robust automotive components such as the MPQ4316-AEC1 (a buck converter with a wide VIN), MPQ8875A-AEC1 (a buck-boost converter with a wide VIN), and MPQ7200-AEC1 (an LED driver with a wide VIN) offer excellent performance and safety with their ability to handle dynamic environments.

January 2022
Optimizing Haptic HMIs for Reliability with Magnetic Sensors

When using magnetic sensors to implement HMI dials and buttons, there are various options to consider when designing the solution, such as decoupling the mechanics of the haptic elements and the electronics, as well as giving plenty of space to the surrounding mechanics. This article outlines simple design guidelines to engineer a contactless, cost-effective HMI solution with unparalleled longevity and low-power consumption.

January 2022
When Is It Beneficial to Place a Copper Layer Beneath DC/DC Power Supplies?

This article explores how copper layering is recommended for EMI testing, as it can improve EMI results. In terms of inductance, copper essentially has no effect on shielded inductors, so copper layering is only recommended for unshielded inductors. Given the minimal effect of copper on inductors, it is ultimately up to the engineer to determine whether to use copper according to the application and required specifications.

January 2022
Recognition and Elimination of Subharmonic Oscillations

This article discusses how to recognize subharmonic oscillations using the time domain and frequency domains. We also covered how slope compensation can reduce subharmonic oscillations despite its negative effects. MPS provides leading power solutions for DC/DC stability, including our Isolated DC/DC Converters & Modules.

January 2022
Controlling Primary-Side Ringing

This article explores how RCD circuit design can be used as a simple and effective suppression method to control flyback primary-side ringing. By carefully selecting the resistor and capacitor, the clamp circuit can better absorb the leakage inductance energy. In addition, the RCD clamp circuit does not consume the main excitation inductance capacity, and reduces both the peak voltage and the power device’s switching stress. To learn more about RCD circuit designs, read our Part I and Part II series on designing an active-clamp forward converter.

January 2022
Frequency Selection in Switching Power Supply Designs (Part II)

This article explores how to design switching power supply designs with three different frequency ranges. With the popularity of new power supply devices, power designers are seeking approaches to further improve functionality and simplify the design. MPS offers innovative power solutions that enable switching power supply designs for fixed, variable, and high-frequency power supply applications.

January 2022
Frequency Selection in Switching Power Supply Designs (Part I)

This article covers approaches to calculate the core circuit indicators that are influenced by switching frequency, and addresses the different types of loss that result from higher frequencies. Part II will discuss practical application scenarios with three different frequency ranges. By understanding the fundamentals of the switching power supply frequency design, power engineers can improve the power quality and the efficiency of energy storage components.

December 2021
Controlling Excessive Conducted EMI Under a Long-Line Load (Part III)

This article discusses a high-frequency CM model throughout Part I and Part II. This article compares three EMI reduction methods and examines the conducted EMI’s resonant peaks. As shown by these articles, excessive EMI under a long-line load can be effectively controlled for various automotive electronics applications by using strategic circuit modifications.

December 2021
Controlling Conducted EMI when Using Long Output Lines (Part II)

This article completes our CM EMI model from Part I by calculating for the distribution of current and voltage, losses on the transmission line, inductance, capacitance, final output line impedance, and frequency. It goes further in depth with the transmission line model to obtain the output long-line impedance to ground.

December 2021
Controlling Conducted EMI when Using Long Output Lines (Part I)

This article reviews the test device’s long-term load conducted EMI results, and applies the substitution and superposition theorems to develop the CM EMI model. It also considers the problem of near-field coupling, which can be broadly categorized between electric field coupling and magnetic field coupling. 

December 2021
Generating and Testing Power Ripples

This article reviews basic methods to measure power ripples, and explores how to use voltage probes and coaxial cables. Power ripple generation and testing is crucial for switch-mode designs with stringent requirements, general switching ripple applications, and applications that require a suitable ripple value across the full bandwidth.

December 2021
Designing a Synchronous Rectification Solution to Reduce Excessive Heat (Part II)

This article reviews strategic considerations to help time when a secondary-side synchronous rectifier opens and shuts down. It also observes the effectiveness of quick shutdown technology with the MP9989. Learn how secondary-side synchronous rectifier solutions using a MOSFET tube are able to overcome the major challenges with standard rectifier solutions to create ultra-small, fast charge solutions.

December 2021
The Road from ECUs to DCUs

This article discusses the transition from embedded ECU systems to centralized DCU systems, and explored MPS’s power subsystem scheme that integrates various subsystems and achieves scalability. With the increasing electrification of vehicles and more advanced control systems, MPS offers innovative solutions and a broad product portfolio to help automotive customers efficiently upgrade their automotive systems.

December 2021
Accurate Current Measurement in Modern Electronic Circuits

This article highlighted available options for accurate current measurement, and clarified how to select the best current-sense solution for an application. It is important to consider technological options early in the design process, and to note the specifics of each solution, such as power supply requirements and the achievable output signal range, to create the most efficient solution possible. The MCS180x Hall-effect sensors from MPS were used to demonstrate how current-mirroring technology helps designers improve system-level performance while reducing power losses and system complexity.

November 2021
MOSFET Switches: Basics and Applications in Power Converters

MOSFETs are an integral part of nearly all electronic systems. Therefore, there is a constant push towards innovating MOSFET structures, discovering new materials and designing circuits with the aim of overcoming current physical limitations while making transistors smaller and smaller. MPS has made significant steps in this field, developing power conversion modules with power switches capable of withstanding up to 100A of continuous current, such as the MPM3695-100. To learn more, visit our website and explore our articles, reference designs, and application notes.

November 2021
Designing a Synchronous Rectification Solution to Reduce Excessive Heat (Part I)

In this article, we reviewed a secondary-side synchronous rectifier design scheme with the MP9989 to successfully turn on the MOS tube and reduce excessive heat. Part II will dive into the opening and shutdown process of the synchronous rectifier, while also discussing the advantages of quick shutdown technology.

November 2021

Designing a Power over Ethernet (PoE) Solution

In this article, we discussed the general requirements of PoE and the design of the DC/DC transformation of the PD. MPS offers PoE power solutions for all the current protocol levels (af, at, and bt) featuring simplified BOM, efficient EMC characteristics, and other design advantages.

October 2021

EMI Generation, Propagation, and Suppression in Automotive Electronics (Part II)

This article is the second part of a two-part series delving into strategies for modeling and analyzing EMI problems. Part 1 explored approaches to reducing conducted EMI between differential mode (DM) noise and common mode (CM) noise. Part II will cover radiated EMI modeling strategies based on Thevenin’s Theorem, as well as ground impedance reduction techniques.

October 2021

EMI Generation, Propagation, and Suppression in Automotive Electronics (Part I)

To reduce EMI, it is necessary to model and analyze various EMI problems. This article provides modeling and suppression methods to reduce EMI in non-isolated converters, such as buck, boost, and buck-boost converters.

October 2021

MPS Solutions for Intelligent Driving

In this article, we discussed how the MPQ8875A and MPQ4425B help DMS and CMS cameras achieve stable, reliable power supplies while improving their infrared LED-based tracking capabilities. As the demands of intelligent driving become more complex, MPS’s power management tools will continue to help designers implement cutting-edge features that emphasize safety, convenience, and efficiency.

September 2021

MPS's Isolated Power Solutions Promote Carbon Neutrality

MPS continues to launch more environmentally conscious, isolated IC products for medium- and high-power power applications. As a result, power designers are able to evolve small-size, high-performance, and fast response power supplies with a lower cost, reduced carbon footprint, and shorter development cycles.

September 2021

Designing an Active-Clamp Forward Converter for PoE-bt Applications (Part II)

In this article, we reviewed how MOSFET transistors and RCD absorption circuits can improve efficiency for active-clamp forward converters, then verified these theories. Overall, PoE solutions using active-clamp forward converters provide higher efficiency and overcome the shortcomings of RCD clamp circuits, further enhancing the function of PoE-bt applications.

September 2021

Designing an Active-Clamp Forward Converter for PoE-bt Applications (Part I)

In this article, we reviewed the evolution and main components of PoE solutions, topological comparisons between flyback and forward converters, and common clamp circuits, including active clamps. Part II will go further in depth and discuss secondary-side synchronous rectification MOSFETs, secondary spike absorption circuits, and efficiency verification processes for PoE-bt applications.

September 2021

MPS's Fully Integrated Power Modules Boost Cloud Computing

MPS power modules present unique advantages that help designers develop highly integrated, scalable, and efficient solutions. As a world-leading semiconductor supplier, MPS fulfills the specific requirements of cloud computing hardware acceleration to create power module solutions capable of handling all voltage and current ranges in power supply systems.

August 2021

MPS’s Open-Source Emergency Ventilator with eMotionTM and Battery Backup

The increasing demand in ventilators meant they would soon be out of supply, so a team at Monolithic Power Systems (MPS) sought to help create a solution to this crisis. While MPS is not a medical device manufacturer, its engineers and designers are highly experienced with power electronics and motor control. Given the technical architecture of ventilators, respirators and ventilator-type machines, MPS leveraged their expertise to aid the fight against the global pandemic.

July 2021

Evaluating the Transient Performance of Buck Regulators with an Integrated Compensation Network

This article presented a systematic approach to evaluate the capability of the internal compensation networks based on the application switching frequency. The proposed evaluation technique involved three basic checks to ensure that the internal compensation network is properly designed for an application with a known or configurable switching frequency. In certain cases, adding external knobs can further improve the system’s transient performance. These principles were applied to the MPQ4430, which verified the effectiveness of the technique. 

July 2021

A Novel Fuel Gauge Solution for High-Voltage Battery Packs

Fuel gauges, such as the MPF42790 from MPS, must provide optimal performance in addition to adaptable designs, simple GUIs, and virtual testing capabilities. These highly adaptable devices enable designers to resimulate previously recorded tests, which significantly speeds up configuration, testing, and validation.

July 2021

Using Current Regulation in DC Motor Drivers

This article provides exploration of how to use the current regulation feature available with motor drivers, such as MPS’s MP6522, to regulate and control the large currents that flow when starting a DC motor. By understanding how to properly limit a motor’s start-up current, designers are able to not only use smaller motor drivers, but also optimize their system’s current delivery.

July 2021

How to Design a Flyback Converter in Seven Steps

This article used the MP6004 from MPS to demonstrate how to design a flyback converter in eight simple steps. Though there are many more things to consider before a design is ready for implementation — such as passing EMC tests, control loop design, and component selection — it is important to establish a clear method for calculating and selecting components.

June 2021

Using Thermal Derating to Extend Automotive LED Life Expectancy: A Simple and Cost-Effective Solution

This solution offers automotive lighting system manufacturers a stable, cost-effective option that can significantly add to the life expectancy of the components in the circuit while taking up very little board space. The circuit proposed in this article can be applied to many existing lighting systems with relative ease and an inexpensive bill of materials, while demonstrating the reliability and flexibility of driver ICs. 

June 2021

Digital PFC + LLC Combo Controller Helps Fast-Charge Adapters Enter the New Age

Fast-charge technology has developed rapidly in the last few years due to the exponential increase in power demand for mobile devices. In late 2020, cell phone market leaders (such as Apple, Xiaomi, and Samsung) started to abandon in-box adapters for cell phones. This change stimulated another boom for the demand of aftermarket adapters, and also confirmed two trends for the fast-charging adapter market.

June, 2021

Automotive Electronics Reliability Testing Starts and Ends with the Mission Profile

Automakers must design vehicles to thrive in a broad spectrum of environments, from snowy tundras to scorching deserts. Unlike most consumer applications, where the expected lifespan can be months, automotive electronics are often expected to last 15 years or more. When specifying a vehicle component, it is common for OEMs and their suppliers to develop an automotive mission profile, which is essentially a summary of all the expected environmental and functional conditions that the component will face during its service life.

May 2021

Direct Junction Temperature Measurement of a DC Switching Power Supply

This article will help readers understand a practical method to measure the junction temperature of an IC by demonstrating how to implement a direct readout temperature measuring method using the MOSFET body diode of a power good (PG) pin. This is a direct voltage readout method using the diode voltage vs. temperature relationship.

May 2021

PMSM Parameter Identification in Smart Motors

This paper introduces how to use the MPS intelligent motor control module to implement an RLS-based PMSM motor parameter identification solution, and uses MPS's MMP757188-36 to verify its performance in hardware real-time testing. An example of position control with different inertia values is also given to illustrate the importance of parameter identification. Additionally, since PMSM FOC depends on several motor parameters, the paper also demonstrates the influence of other parameters on the control loop.

May 2021

Powering the Next Sophisticated AI System

Today’s AI systems are enabled through several high-performance computer systems that are challenging power designers on many fronts. The traditional datacenter designs are rapidly migrating from general purpose CPU-only solutions towards combinations of CPUs, GPUs, and TPUs, which bring new and more stringent demands on power design solutions.

April 2021

Highly Integrated, Scalable, Current-Sharing Hot-Swap Solution for 48V Datacenter Applications

Incorporating these elements into an integrated hot-swap solution such as the MP5048 provides a simple, user-friendly and robust solution that is greatly suitable for space-constrained 48V datacenter applications. A monolithic system makes it possible to adapt the operation of the system to the needs at hand, eliminates repetitive and labor-intensive activities, and allows engineers to address shrinking space constraints and tight project turnaround times.

April 2021

How does Flyback Synchronous Rectification Affect EMI?

Flyback adapter design with SR is different from conventional set-ups with a Schottky diode. When adopting an synchronous rectification solution, the two main expectations are improved efficiency and thermal performance. However, there are other aspects to consider, such as EMI performance.

April 2021

The Difference between CCM and DCM Explained

Flyback converters are often used in switch-mode power supplies for AC/DC and DC/DC conversion, especially for the low-to-mid power range (about 2W to 100W). In this power range, flyback converters offer a very competitive size, cost, and efficiency ratio.

April 2021

Primary-Side vs. Secondary-Side Regulation

There are two differentiated methods for implementing a control loop in your converter design: called primary-side regulation and secondary-side regulation (PSR and SSR, respectively). Each method has its own set of advantages and disadvantages, which have been discussed in this article

April 2021

Simplified USB Type-C Power Management Design for Portable Devices

USB Type-C cables and connectors are small, but they are incredibly versatile and powerful, with a wide voltage range between two power sources (VCONN and VBUS). In order to have an elegant, compact design that can reliably handle and monitor USB Type-C voltages, an integrated power device with an O-ring circuit and a buck-boost circuit is strongly recommended.

March 2021

Switch Node Layout Considerations for EMC

For any switching regulator or power converter circuit, the layout of the SW node requires serious consideration. It is important to understand SW node waveforms, determine a reasonable SW trace size, and utilize strategies to minimize near-field coupling.

March 2021

A Perfect Match: Power Losses in Buck Converters and How to Increase Efficiency

Today's highly developed power ICs require superior power inductors. Building a standard power supply with common footprints can help reduce design time and production costs. Determining the best match between an inductor and an IC is paramount to achieving the best performance in terms of PCB space, as well as thermal and cost efficiency. 

February 2021

Brushless Vs Brushed DC Motors: When and Why to Choose One Over the Other

There are two types of commonly used DC motors: Brushed motors, and brushless motors (or BLDC motors). As their names imply, DC brushed motors have brushes, which are used to commutate the motor to cause it to spin. Brushless motors replace the mechanical commutation function with electronic control.

February 2021

Improving Efficiency with an Active Switch on an AC Bridge

n active bridge solution based on a powerful synchronous rectifier provides an instant alternative to solve issues with high power loss on the diode bridge in conventional PFCs. By replacing the bridge diodes — which have a relatively fixed forward voltage drop — with MOSFETs, conduction loss can be reduced with a lower MOSFET on state resistance. 

February 2021

USB Type-C Boost and Buck-Boost Solutions for PPS

USB single- and multi-port power products are now available with extended functionality for better control across many applications, including direct battery charging with PPS functions. Devices and solutions were presented for powering USB Type-C ports that require USB-PD and PPS functionality, which is becoming increasingly common in the latest consumer and automotive products for a variety of applications. High efficiency, full protection features, and versatile programmable functions in these types of solutions yield high-performance, cost-effective power delivery.

February 2021

Understanding Datasheet Thermal Parameters and IC Junction Temperatures

This introductory article will help today’s hardware engineers understand how to decipher the thermal parameters found in datasheets — including whether to choose theta vs. psi, how to calculate these values, and most importantly, how to apply these values.

February 2021

Quick Tips to Diagnose and Stabilize an Unstable Switching Power Supply

This article explored several quick tips to diagnose and solve instability problems in switching power supplies. Separate techniques were proposed for stabilizing regulators with an external compensation network vs. regulators with an external compensation network. 

February 2021

Using External Knobs to Improve Transient Performance of Buck Regulators with an Integrated Compensation Network

In this article, a systematic approach has been provided to further optimize the transient performance of internally compensated buck regulators, demonstrated with the MPQ4420. 

February 2021

Audible Power Supply Noise

There are several solutions to address audible noise in a power supply. Solutions such as changing the control strategy to avoid certain frequencies or changing the peak current can reduce audible noise.

February 2021

Lithium-Ion Battery Charger IC Based Maximum Power Point Tracking System

The MP2731 lithium-ion battery charger IC effectively reduces the cost for outdoor IoT systems by eliminating discrete voltage and current-sensing circuitry from the BOM. Highly integrated low RDS(ON) allows for a high-efficiency system with a compact PCB area.

February 2021

How to Achieve Fast Charging with USB PD in Portable Devices

Today's consumers want to conveniently and quickly charge their portable devices anywhere, whether they are in a business center or shopping mall, or waiting for a flight or train. However, there are many different types of charging adapters and connectors, which can make determining which charger or chargers to have on hand confusing for the end user. If the consumer has to carry multiple different charging adapters for different portable devices (such as their phone, tablet, and laptop), they can quickly become overwhelmed

January 2021

Power Factor Correction (PFC)

Power factor is defined as the ratio of energy a device is capable of transmitting to the output versus the total amount of energy it takes from the input power source. It is a key figure of merit for the design of electrical devices, especially due to the regulations put in place by countries and international organizations like the EU.

January 2021

DC Power Supply Noise Reduction and Measurement

DC switching power can generate audible noise, which is often heard as a slight whistle. Where does audible noise come from, and how can it be reduced or eliminated? This article will describe simple ways to prevent noise while measuring and designing an application. Read on to find common weak points in existing or planned PCB designs for DC power supply circuits.

November 2020

Surface-Mounted Inductors Optimized for MPS ICs

The new surface-mounted power inductors from Monolithic Power Systems are designed for applications ranging from power supplies to power converters. The molded and semi-shielded series inductors include inductance ranges from 0.33µH to 22µH, and saturation current ranges from 0.8A to 64A.

November 2020

MP3424 Single AA Battery Boost Solution

Having a programmable constant current mode in a boost DC/DC regulator is a great tool to use for applications that have a power-limited source, such as a low-voltage battery. Using the switch pin on the boost converter for a separate power input, while biasing the device with a small auxiliary source, utilizes the full power potential of the battery source.

October 2020

Powering Datacenters with Digital Multi-Phase Controllers

The multi-phase solution has evolved into digital control that enables greater capability in solving the challenges of powering high-current/power applications such as datacenters. With digital control solutions, the design burdens of component selection, loop/performance optimization, and layout are greatly reduced. These control solutions shorten the overall design time, system troubleshooting, and ultimately improve time-to-market.

September 2020

Switching Power Supplies: Uses, Advantages and Working Principles

Switching AC/DC power supplies offer increased performance for a fraction of the size, which is what has made them so popular. The downside is that their circuits are significantly more complex, and they require more precise control circuits and noise cancellation filters. Despite the added complexity, MPS provides simple and efficient solutions to make the development of your AC/DC power supply easier.

September 2020

Analog vs. Digital Signals

This article introduces some of the basic concepts of analog and digital signals, and their uses in electronics. There are clear advantages and disadvantages with each technology, and knowing your application’s needs and performance requirements will help you determine which signal(s) to choose.

September 2020

Live Digital Solutions for Efficient Power Supply Designs (Part II)

MPS’s HR121x family of products are rich in digital and analog functions. These PFC + LLC combo controllers are highly integrated, and offer reduced power consumption that makes them well suited for standby power applications. 

August 2020

Understanding AC/DC Power Supplies

Methods for designing an AC/DC power supply have changed over time. Linear AC/DC power supplies are limited in size and efficiency, because they work at low frequencies and regulate the output temperature by dissipating the excess energy in the form of heat. By contrast, switching power supplies have become extremely popular, because they use switching regulators to convert AC to DC power.

August 2020

The Past and Present of COT Control

MPS’s digital COT control can not only achieve multi-phase, multi-loop control, but also can support phase number configuration, automatic loop compensation, and other benefits that greatly simplify the design and improve product design efficiency. 

August 2020

Operational Amplifier Basics

An operational amplifier (op amp) is an analog circuit block that takes a differential voltage input and produces a single-ended voltage output. Operational amplifiers work to amplify the voltage differential between the inputs, which is useful for a variety of analog functions including signal chain, power, and control applications.

August 2020

Live Digital Solutions for Efficient Power Supply Designs (Part I)

With the continued rapid development of various electronic products, high-efficiency power supply design requirements are continually evolving. The high-efficiency conversion circuits defined in textbooks can no longer meet the actual needs of the market, because achieving high efficiency under rated operating conditions is just one of the requirements. 

August 2020

How to Avoid Inductor Saturation in your Power Supply Design

The saturation behavior of the inductor is often misunderstood and can be troublesome. This article will address how inductors become saturated, how saturation affects the circuit, and methods to detect inductor saturation.

August 2020

Xilinx Reference Design: MPS Launches High-Performance FPGA Power Supply Solutions

As a leader in the FPGA field, Xilinx has launched various platform design solutions for a wide range of applications, especially in the field of wireless communication and artificial intelligence. As the power design requirements of high-performance FPGAs continue to increase in complexity, power supply engineers begin to face more challenges.

August 2020

Voltage Regulator Types and Working Principles

Voltage regulators (VRs) keep the voltages from a power supply within a range that is compatible with the other electrical components. While voltage regulators are most commonly used for DC/DC power conversion, some can perform AC/AC or AC/DC power conversion as well. This article will focus on DC/DC voltage regulators.

July 2020

How to Select a Lithium-Ion Battery Charge Management IC

As Li-ion batteries continue to be used in modern appliances and systems, it is vital to continuously evaluate how to make them more efficient and cost-effective. With so many architectures and chargers to choose from, MPS can streamline the process with products like the MP2731.

July 2020

If Small is Too Big: The New MA782 Hall Encoder is the World's Smallest True Absolute IC EncoderTM

The sensing core of the MA782 is based on an array of integrated Hall-effect devices that measure the direction of the in-plane magnetic field. A fast digital filter that generates 8-bit to 12-bit angle resolution and efficient SPI communication emables control cycles as short as 6.25µs for highly dynamic systems. With the SpinAxisTM method, minimal calibration is required, limited to just a zero-point shift and possible symmetry compensation.

June 2020

Integrated Solution for Multiple Li-Ion/Li-Polymer Batteries

The traditional solution for multi-cell battery chargers is composed of several discrete power MOSFETs and multiple auxiliary components.

June 2020

Power Modules Make PCIe Accelerator Cards More Powerful

Major internet companies, cloud computing service providers, and communication service providers are demanding further improved server computing performance and data processing speed. The traditional CPU can no longer meet today’s data processing requirements.

June 2020

MPS Simulation Tools to Speed Up Your Design

An unexpected pandemic has disrupted design timelines across the globe. Because design teams must work from home, manufacturers have experienced numerous product delays or even cancellations. MPS simulation tools can help users speed up their design process

June 2020

Digital Communications in Power Supply Applications

Adding a digital control and communication feature to the power converter allows better integration of these devices into modern electronic systems by streamlining system design, and increasing flexibility and reliability.

Originally published in EDN

June 2020

EMC Testing Plan and Key Success Factors 

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) can prove difficult for developers and project managers. In-house testing results are rarely as good as expected, and additional obstacles may arise during development.

May 2020

MPS Electronics:  Stepper Motors: Types, Uses and Working Principle


On this article we will cover the basics of a stepper motor. You will learn about the working principles, control methods, uses, and types of a stepper motor. As well as its advantages and disadvantages.

April 2020

Achieve Fast Transient Performance with MPS's Latest 12V-to-Load Multi-Phase Solution

MPS offers customers the ability to increase efficiency, achieve very fast transient performance, and save on both cost and space. Because no bulky output capacitors are required, our parts are available in an ultra-small package size to minimize footprint on the PCB.

March 2020

Accelerate the Future with MPS Power Modules

Power modules are the next step in power management evolution. As design requirements become stricter and available board space continues to shrink, engineers need solutions that can offer excellent performance with the smallest possible footprint.

March 2020

MP8859: Integrated DC/DC Buck-Boost Converter with I2C Control

The MP8859 is a versatile buck-boost converter suitable for a variety of USB PD or portable battery applications requiring output currents of up to 3A. The I2C configurability allows the MP8859 to be rapidly tailored by speeding up evaluation and reducing design time.

March 2020

Easy, Cost-Effective Pre-Booster for Automotive Cold Crank Conditions

The power stage for most 12V automotive systems consists of a single buck converter that typically regulates the output voltage to 5V or 3.3V. Even if the regulator starts working in low dropout mode, most circuits can be affected by a dip in the input voltage, and may stop functioning.

March 2020

Automotive LED Driver Design: Good Practices to Ensure EMC Compliance

More and more automotive manufacturers are adopting LED lighting technology and moving away from halogen light bulbs. LED lighting systems have diverse power supply requirements, depending on the number of devices present on a string, the current needed, dimming, and other factors.

March 2020

Modern Efficiency is Powered by Digital Flexibility

The PFC stage can benefit significantly from a multi-mode control scheme other than the conventional options of simple critical conduction mode (CrM) or continuous conduction mode (CCM).

Originally published in ElectronicDesign

February 2020

Using MagAlpha Rotary Magnetic Sensors in Side Shaft Mode

It should be noted that mechanical and magnetization tolerances have a much larger effect on sensor linearity in side shaft modes. As a consequence, these tolerances must be considered to ensure the final design meets expectations. After the initial settings are found using the simulator for a first pass, it is recommended to perform a series of further simulator iterations by adding in the various tolerances via the advance parameters section.

February 2020

MA800 Family Contactless Angle Sensing Increases Reliability in Rotary Switch Applications

Flexibility of the MA8xx family provides designers with an innovative way to improve reliability in rotary interface applications while simultaneously adding increased functionality to the end user’s experience

February 2020

Choosing the Right Magnet for MagAlpha Sensors

Exact magnet sizes, shapes, and materials should be selected depending on application requirements and target costs. This article discusses tradeoffs and how to choose the best magnet for an application.

February 2020

Using MOSFET Drivers for Motor Drives 

Practical information to select the best components for use in a motor drive with a pre-driver IC and power MOSFETs. Hopefully it will help you in selecting the right IC and associated components in your next motor drive design.

January 2020

5G Base Station Complexity Drives the Need for Low-EMI DC/DC Module Solutions

5G enables many more data connections per base station by using what are called “massive multiple-input multiple-output” (massive-MIMO) antenna arrays.

January 2020

Optimizing EMI in Switching Regulators  for Consumer and RF-Sensitive Applications

High-efficiency switching regulators enables simple manufacturing using single-layer PCB layout to save cost. Three levels of output current in the same footprint provides flexibility to switch to different devices without PCB changes.

November 2019

Simple, Intelligent, High-Density Power: PMBus Compatible, Monolithic 30A DC/DC Regulator can Parallel up to Eight Phases and Output more than 240A

With the MPQ8645P, the design burden of component selection, optimization, and layout is eliminated, shortening the overall design time, system trouble-shooting, and ultimately improving the time to market.

November 2019

Output Voltage Ripple Measurements and Reduction for DC/DC Voltage Regulators

Analyzes the source of output ripple in a DC/DC voltage regulator, compares the different measurement set-ups, and discusses how to reduce the output ripple.

November 2019

MP6540/40A – 35V, 3A, Monolithic Three-Phase Driver Enables Compact Brushless DC Motor Designs

The use of small electric motors to automate basic mechanical functions has proliferated in recent years as consumers come to expect and appreciate “smart functionality” in their everyday appliances. These motorized mechanisms can be grouped into the category of actuators, and are found in a diversity of applications including consumer appliances, home and industrial automation, and vehicle electronics

October 2019

Introducing the MPM3515-AEC1 Automotive Power Module

The MPM3515-AEC1 is a 36V, 1.5A, high-voltage, automotive-grade power module from Monolithic Power Systems (MPS). This part inherits the key advantages of the MPM module family: very compact size, ease of use, and high performance

October 2019

Highly Integrated Battery-Charging Solution with Innovative Power Path Management

The MP2696A provides a compact design solution for power bank or charging case applications

October 2019

MPQ3326-AEC1 16-Channel Automotive LED Driver Applications

From advanced steerable headlight beams to sophisticated in-cabin mood lighting, the ability to combine individual LED control, color, and brightness opens up a plethora of opportunities to add style and appeal to a vehicle.

October 2019

Simple, Compact, Elegant Hot-Swap Solution for Server Design

Learn how incorporating key elements into a hot-swap solution eliminates repetitive and labor-intensive activities, and allows engineers to address shrinking space constraints and tight project turnaround times. 

September 2019

PCB Design for Low-EMI DC/DC Converters

Read about careful component placement and PCB layout — especially when working within highly regulated industries.

August 2019

Understanding the MagAlpha Digital Filter: Benefits of the MA732 & MA330

This article, second in the series on the MPS MagAlpha magnetic rotary angle sensor family, looks at how the unique SpinaxisTM sensing technology uses digital filtering to achieve the final output resolution, and introduces the MA732 and MA300 versions with programmable filter settings. After sampling the angle via an array of front end Hall elements, the sensor accumulates samples into a modified Kalman-type digital filter which removes noise and increase the final output resolution.

August 2019

MPM38222 - A Simple, Compact Power Solution for Optical Modules.

This article introduces the MPM38222, a high-performance, 6V input, dual 2A power module, which is suitable for optical modules and other space-limited applications. The total solution for a dual 2A resides in a 9mmx7mm area with 90% efficiency and can meet EN55022 Class B emissions. The MPM38222 is available in a small QFN-14 (4mmx4mmx1.6mm) package.

August 2019

Introduction to the MagAlpha Magnetic Angle Sensor Family

Though potentiometers are inexpensive, they suffer from the drawback of being a moving contact-based assembly, which brings the associated issues of mechanical contact wear and susceptibility to damage from external environmental factors including moisture and dirt ingress. Optical encoders offer high accuracy, but come at a higher price due to the complex nature of their construction. Engineers can solve this dilemma by using contactless rotary magnetic angle sensors that implement Hall-effect sensing. 

July 2019

Field-Oriented Control for PMSMs Utilizing a Dynamic Speed Observer

This article presents a promising solution for PMSM FOC as a combination of a low-cost magnetic angular sensor and a dynamic observer to estimate the accurate rotor speed. The algorithm is implemented in the motor control ASIC from MPS. The MA702 provides a high-resolution, on-board angular sensor, so the algorithm avoids the high-dimension matrix inverse calculation

June 2019

Accurate and Precise Automotive Extreme Temperature Testing

It is extremely important for IC manufacturers to be able to design and test products accurately to ensure that they perform as expected across all temperature ranges—even extreme cold or extreme hot.

Originally published in ednasia

June 2019

Motor Driver PCB Layout Guidelines - Part 2

The first part of this article provided some general recommendations for designing printed circuit boards (PCB) using motor driver ICs, which require careful PCB layout for proper performance. Part 2 will discuss some specific PCB layout recommendations for using typical motor driver IC packages.

May 2019

Power Path Management in Charger ICs

The DPPM control loop adjusts the charge current dynamically based on the input source current capability and load current level to achieve a minimum charge time for a given source and system load. With DPPM, the system can obtain power immediately once the input source is applied, even with a deeply discharged battery. The system voltage regulation method is also discussed.

May 2019

Motor Driver PCB Layout Guidelines – Part 1

Motor driver ICs deliver large amounts of current and dissipate a significant amount of power.  Generally, this power is dissipated into copper areas on the printed circuit board (PCB). To ensure adequate cooling, special PCB design techniques are required. Part 1 of this article will provide some general recommendations for designing PC boards that use motor driver ICs.

April 2019

Scalable Current-Sharing E-Fuse Solution

The MP5921 can be scaled to support any current range needed for hot-swap and e-fuse solutions. With a 60-A current rating in a 4 x 5-mm package, the MP5921 provides an extremely dense hot-swap/e-fuse solution. Each MP5921 has built-in protection features that monitor damaged MOSFETs, over-temperature conditions of the internal MOSFET, soft-start watchdog timer, and over-current protection.

April 2019

MPS Smart-Ramp Technology – A Solution to Voltage Change-Induced Audible Noise

Voltage level changes to the processor input power are a necessary power-saving feature that will likely be used for many PC generations to come. When those changes result in audible noise in the PC, manufacturers have had few and expensive options to make their platforms viable for the marketplace. MPS Smart-Ramp audible noise reduction technology provides PC manufacturers with an effective option that is easily implemented.

March 2019

High Power, Fully Integrated, Synchronous Boost Converter with Optimized Features for Portable and Battery-Operated Applications

The MP3432 from MPS is a perfect choice for the first stage of battery-powered systems. The MP3432 can supply 30~40W of power to systems from the battery input target for portable applications and consumes the lowest power possible in standby and idle modes while still providing high efficiency at very low current levels, resulting in a longer battery life and application run time

March 2019
Tackling Automotive Lighting’s Common Challenges with New LED Driver Modules

One of the biggest trends in automotive electronics has been the widespread proliferation of lighting LEDs, as their intrinsic benefits of longevity, small size, and low power consumption are perfectly harmonious with the needs of today’s eco-conscious vehicles. LEDs today are found by the dozens in and around cars. On the inside, they can be found in accent and mood lighting, tell-tales, and digital screen backlights. On the outside, they’re a great fit for everything from turning and position indicators to fog and daytime running lights. In the coming years, LEDs are expected to take over high-power headlamps, which, even as of a few years ago, were still mainly halogen- or Xenon-based.

March 2019
MPS Power Modules Offer A Compact and Ultra-Low Noise Solution for Xilinx Zynq UltraScale+ RFSoC

The growing number of high-performance FPGA and ASIC applications that are driven by the increased bandwidth of wireless networks and data centers demand for power regulators with high power density, fast load transient response, and high efficiency. Xilinx Zynq UltraScale+ RFSoCs integrate multi-giga-sample RF data converters and soft-decision forward error correction (SD-FEC) into a SoC architecture

March 2019

Passive Filter Design Concept of Buck Regulators for Ultra-Low Noise Applications 

Switched-mode power supplies (SMPS) have the advantage of high efficiency compared to traditional low-dropout (LDO) regulators. Due to its switching nature, a SMPS emits noise at its switching frequency and its harmonics. This article illustrates the procedure of designing filtering to achieve ultra-low output voltage noise with SMPS regulators. Single-stage capacitive filter is commonly used for DC/DC converter applications

Originally published in Codico

February 2019

Total Integrated Power Solution for Smart Lighting

The smart lighting devices can be used as a hub, integrated as key component of IoT systems and smart home/smart automation networks. This article will focus on the power solution for smart lighting- in particular smart light bulbs.

Originally published in Power Electronics Europe

February 2019
Good News! MPS’ MP2888A Receives 2018 World Electronics Achievement Award “Power Management/Voltage Converter of the Year”

Last week, the list of the 2018 World Electronics Achievement Awards was unveiled at the Global Double Summit hosted by ASPENCORE, the world's largest media group in the field of electronic technology. The MP2888A from MPS won the title of "Power Management/Voltage Converter of the Year " as the industry's first 10-phase digital controller. MPS becomes one of only three companies that have won this world award.

Originally published in WeChat.

December 2018
Energy Recycling in DC Motor Drives

When decelerating a moving mass in a permanent magnet motor drive, energy stored in the mechanical system may be returned through the motor driver to the power source. If this energy is not properly accounted for, it can cause damage to the motor driver or the rest of the system by causing an increase in the power supply voltage.

In this article, we will look at ways to dissipate this energy safely. To simplify the examples, a DC brush motor is shown. This applies to brushless motor systems as well.

Originally published in EDN.

November 2018
The Linear Charger in Wearable Applications

Wearable devices have become increasingly integrated into our lives. In addition to being used in fitness devices, they have also worked their way into other fields, including medical care, entertainment, security, and finance. In all applications, battery life and component size are two key concerns. Most applications require a small board and low BOM, which means the device should be highly integrated. 

Our new article discusses common issues in earable device applications, including size, programmability, and battery life, and how these issues can be resolved with the MPS MP266x line of linear chargers.

Originally published in Bodo's Power Systems (page 78).

November 2018
Analysis and Simulation of PCB ACR Losses for Vcore DrMOS Optimization

Printed circuit board (PCB) main-loop ripple current resistive losses are often neglected and overlooked as a switching power supply loss component. These losses can be significant for high-current Vcore and other applications that operate with high ripple current. Ansys Q3D is used to extract the main loop ripple current frequency-dependent resistance for a typical Vcore power stage PCB layout. Including this loss component significantly improves the correlation between the modeled and measured total loss as a function of the switching frequency. An analytic expression is developed to optimize the switching frequency for peak efficiency at the balance point between the negative frequency coefficient PCB and passive component losses and the positive frequency coefficient MOSFET conventional switching losses.

Originally published in EDN.

September 2018
Capacitive Isolation: A Fundamental Building Block in Future AC/DC Power Conversion

Capacitive isolation is a mature solution developed over the past decade to replace optocouplers in signal isolators, isolated gate drivers, isolated transceivers, and other applications. However, the potential to use capacitive isolation to replace optocouplers in offline adaptors is often neglected. This articles explains why capacitive isolation can be a fundamental building block in future AC/DC power conversion, how it exceeds the performance of other isolation technologies, and the unique advantages it can bring to end applications.

Originally published in Power Systems Design.

September 2018
Plug & Play Digital Programmable Power Modules Enable Rapid Prototyping of Power Supply

Power designers often face two challenges during product development: scheduling overrun and cost overrun. Changes in specifications and failing to meet target specifications are two of the most common reasons for project delay and budget overrun. To meet target specifications, power engineers may have to do a complete redesign of the power supply during the prototyping stage. It is often overlooked, but the power supply is one of the most essential part of all hardware products. A high-efficiency power supply design directly benefits the overall system cooling requirement, thereby reducing the cost and volume of the final product. A low-noise power solution design ensures that the final products pass applicable EMI standards, such as IEC EN61000. In some applications, such as data transceivers and DAC/ADCs, the performance of a product is highly dependent on the design and noise level of the power supplies.

Originally published in Power Electronics Europe - September 2018.

September 2018
A Charger IC, N Kinds of Applications

Many portable and hand-held applications, such as e-cigarettes, gimbals, Bluetooth speakers, and point-of-sale machines, draw their power from a 2-series cell battery and must also be USB compliant. This poses design challenges, as batteries are typically expected to maintain a long charge, but the design cannot be crowded with multiple components. The ideal solution would include bidirectional operation, cell balancing, and appropriate protection features.

Our new article discusses how the MP2639A is a natural pick because of its functional diversity, control flexibility, and high reliability. The MP2639A is a fully integrated and flexible battery charge management IC that can charge two cells in series from a 5V power supply with up to 15W of power from a USB-C port.

Originally published in Bodo's Power Systems (page 36).

August 2018
High-Voltage Analog Switches for Medical Ultrasound

High-voltage supplies are used in most HV analog switches, which creates cost, size, and safety concerns. Switches developed by MPS offer an alternative by eliminating those supplies.

Originally published in Electronic Design.

June 2018
High-Performance Solenoid Drives

Solenoids are used in many applications to provide linear or rotational actuation in mechanical systems. Although driving solenoids can be as simple as switching the current flow on and off, oftentimes better performance can be obtained using a dedicated IC to drive them. In this article, we will examine how drive circuitry affects the electromechanical performance of solenoids. Two different drive circuits will be compared: a simple switch and a current regulating driver. Energy-saving techniques that limit power dissipation in the solenoid will also be illustrated.

Originally published in Electronic Design

May 2018
Introducing the MagAlpha MAQ430 & MAQ470: 12-Bit, Automotive-Grade, Magnetic Angle Sensors

Measuring angular movement or rotation in vehicles is becoming increasingly important as vehicles integrate more technologies and systems to aid their drivers. Many vehicle system options are now controllable via a single rotary knob selector, and previously manual features are being motorized, which requires motor rotation, position, and speed control.

This article discusses how the MagAlpha MAQ470 and MAQ430 automotive-grade angle sensors from Monolithic Power Systems (MPS) can be used to provide a highly reliable and contactless way to measure angles, rotation position, or speed.

Originally published in CODICO Impulse.

May 2018
 What They Don’t Teach About Synchronous Rectifiers in School – Selected Topics from Real Designs

In recent years, global regulatory agencies have proposed efficiency standards to further improve global energy savings. It has become mandatory for manufacturers to improve the efficiency of existing standalone power supply products to meet DoE Level VI in order to sell them to the US market. Additionally, manufacturers are also expected to design products under other energy specifications, such as EU CoC V5Tier2 specs.

Orignally published in Bodo's Power Systems.

May 2018
Intelligent Scalable DC/DC Power Modules Provide up to 250A Output Current

The growing number of high-performance FPGA and ASIC applications that are driven by the increased bandwidth of wireless networks and data centers require power regulators with high power density, fast load transient response, and intelligent power-management features. The MPM3695 series of power modules with integrated inductors from Monolithic Power Systems (MPS) offers a versatile solution for powering FPGAs and ASICs by offering up to 60 % higher power density compared to discrete point-of-load (POL) solutions, simplified PCB layout and power stage design, minimal external components, and minimal expertise requirement for the power converter and compensation network design.

Orignally published in Power Electronics Europe.

May 2018
Teardown of USB Charging Module in Mercedes Benz E-Class Cars—How the MPQ448x Family Simplifies Design

A 12-USB charging port design was first seen in the new E-Class line of cars from Mercedes Benz in China. Knowing that designing even a single USB charging port in a car is very specific and difficult considering protection and voltage conversion functions, how is twelve even possible? Our new article explores the ins and outs of automotive USB charging and breaks down an MPS MPQ448x module to see exactly how this feat was accomplished.

Originally published in WeChat (Chinese).

January 2018
Increasing the Power Density and Efficacy of Datacenters Using a Two-Stage Solution for 48V Power Distribution

Current datacenters typically have a 12-V backplane and distribution on board and need to convert the voltage down to around 1 V, which is usually achieved with a synchronous buck regulator, single- or multi-phase. The racks in these datacenters normally max out at a power rating of 20 kW. There is a need in the industry to increase the power density per-rack to about 100 kW to reduce the size of these datacenters. This can be achieved by using a 48 V backplane and distribution, but there are challenges associated with this approach. To drive 48 V down to the board, traditional synchronous buck regulators cannot be relied on. How, then, does one increase the density of datacenters without also increasing cost? This paper outlines a two-stage solution to drive 48 V down to the point of load (PoL, approximately 1 – 5 V) in a flexible, scalable, and cost-effective manner that will benefit the next generation of server power delivery.

Originally published in Power Electronics News.

October 2017
MPS Smart Ramp Technology - A Solution to Voltage Change-Induced Audible Noise

Audible noise in voltage regulator (VR) systems has been a problem for a very long time now. In the PC industry, the issue became more pronounced as the CPU became responsible for significant and repetitive voltage changes that induced noise through the VR. Those voltage changes, along with the physical properties of ceramic capacitors and the motherboard, produce an audible noise problem for the PC manufacturer with no good solutions so far. MPS had addressed the voltage change-induced audible noise issue by introducing MPS Smart-Ramp technology.

Originally published in AllAboutCircuits.

May 2017