48V Data Center

48V Data Center Solutions

Overview

Today’s datacenters use an average of 3kW to 5kW per rack to power server, storage, and networking racks. Most are designed to power basic CPUs to operate at high levels of efficiency. Hence, the traditional 12V power architecture has been widely accepted and implemented. 

As the demand for cloud computing, AI applications, and high-power processors and accelerators grows, datacenters are evolving to accommodate new high-power requirements. For example, an early AI market supercomputer required 3200W for the entire power system. The second generation’s power demand increased threefold, resulting in 10kW for the entire power system. Since the power lost in distributing high current increases by the square of the current (I2R), more copper must be used in the backplane or wiring harness to control the distribution losses. Ultimately, this limits the power delivery of the system.

In order to meet the industry’s new power requirements, MPS has developed a new power architecture, using a 48V distribution voltage that is capable of a 16x reduction in power distribution losses, in addition to presenting a 48V datacenter solution to address new design challenges. (see Figure 1)

Figure 1: Traditional 12V Power Distribution

MPS 48V Power Structure

48V Power Structure: MPS's New 48V to 4.8V System

Figure 2: 48V Power Structure – MPS 4V to 6V System

  • Total system efficiency is greatly optimized
  • First-stage solution: MPS LLC Power Modules
    • 10:1 input-to-output ratio
    • Offered at various power levels
    • Parallel operation
  • Second-stage solution: Digital multi-phase controller + low-voltage Intelli-PhaseTM or Intelli-Module
    • The Intelli-PhaseTM family offers continuos current ratings up to 90A
    • Intelli-Module solutions offer continuous current ratings up to 170A
  • E-Fuse

Intelli-Modules are MPS's latest open-frame power module as part of the second-stage solution. Intelli-Module achieves high power density and optimizes thermal performance in space constraint applications.

Intelli-PhaseTM is MPS’s state-of-the-art power stage. MPS’s DrMOS uses our monolithic process to drastically improve performance, and incorporates advanced features, including current sense, temperature sense, and fault reporting.


Lateral vs. Vertical Power Delivery

Today’s datacenters use a lateral power delivery system, in which the power voltage regulators are placed on the top side of the board around the processor. As the current demand of CPUs and GPUs increases, the distance between the voltage regulator and the point of load become a significant factor for PDN losses. In addition, increased PDN means that the system requires a large amount of output capacitance for the voltage regulators.

Vertical power delivery is a method by which the voltage regulators are placed on the bottom side of the PCB below the processors. This results in a significant reduction (more than 10x) in PDN losses.

Lateral Power Delivery <1000A

Vertical Power Delivery >1000A

MPS offers power module solutions with <4mm height to fit in the limited space on the bottom side of the PCB.

Contact MPS for more information on vertical power EVBs

First-Stage Solution: Power Modules

MPS offers multiple options for first-stage modules

10:1 IBC Modules

54V to 5.4V







Enables a higher frequency second stage due to lower switching losses, which allows the use of a smaller, shorter inductor

  • Best for vertical power delivery (VPD)

4:1 IBC Modules

54V to 13.5V

Higher power density, established common footprint in the market

  • Best for lateral power delivery


All of MPS’s IBC modules can be paralleled to reach >1kW power levels. An application note with additional details is in development.




MPC1100C-54 - High-Efficiency, Non-Isolated, Fixed-Ratio Digital DC/DC 300W Power Module

The MPC1100C-54 is an open-frame digital DC/DC power module with continuous power up to 300W. This module accepts up to a 60V input, and is configured in a 10:1 input-to-output ratio. It offers a digital controller with multiple-time programmability (MTP), which can be easily configured to quickly bring up the system and nimbly adapt to system requirements.

Figure 3: MPC1100C-54

Features

  • Input Voltage Range: 40V to 60V
  • 10:1 Input-to-Output Ratio
  • Power Level: Up to 300W
  • Power Density: 1700W/in3
  • LLC Topology
  • Compatible with Serial Interface
  • Supports Parallel Operation
  • Built-In MTP to Store Custom Configurations
    • Under-Voltage Lockout (UVLO)
    • VOUT Over-Voltage Protection (OVP) and Under-Voltage Protection (UVP)
    • OCP_TDC/SPIKE
    • Over-Temperature Protection (OTP)
  • GUI Configuration Software Provided
  • Great for High-Current and High-Power Applications
  • Pin-to-Pin Compatible with the MPC1102-54

Dimensions
27mmx18mmx6.1mm

Part Number VIN (V) VOUT Range (V) Power Density (W/in3) POUT (W) Peak Efficiency (%) Efficiency @ 300W (%)
MPC1100C-54-0002 40 to 60 4 to 6 1700 300 96.7 95.3

MPC11057-54-0750 - High-Efficiency, Non-Isolated, Fixed-Ratio Digital DC/DC 750W Power Module

The MPC11057-54-0750 is an open-frame digital DC/DC power module with continuous power up to 750W (see Figure 4). This module accepts up to a 60V input, and is configured in a 10:1 input-to-output ratio. It offers a digital controller with multiple-time programmability (MTP), which can be easily configured to quickly bring up the system and nimbly adapt to system requirements.

Features

  • Input Voltage Range: 40V to 60V
  • 10:1 Input-to-Output Ratio
  • Power Level: Up to 750W
  • Power Density: 1840W/in3
  • LLC Topology
  • Compatible with Serial Interface
  • Built-In MTP to Store Custom Configurations
    • VIN Under-Voltage Lockout (UVLO)
    • VOUT Over-Voltage Protection (OVP) and Under-Voltage Protection (UVP)
    • OCP_TDC/SPIKE
    • Over-Temperature Protection (OTP)
  • GUI Configuration Software Provided
  • Great for High-Current and High-Power Applications

Figure 4: MPC11057-54-0750-xxxx

Dimensions
53mmx18mmx7mm

Part Number VIN (V) VOUT Range (V) Power Density (W/in3) POUT (W) Peak Efficiency (%) Efficiency @ 300W (%)
MPC11057-54-0750-xxxx 40 to 60 4 to 6 1840 750 97.6 96.9

MPC12106-54-0750 - High-Efficiency, Non-Isolated, Fixed-Ratio Digital DC/DC 750W Power Module

The MPC12106-54-0750 is an open-frame digital DC/DC power module with continuous power, up to 750W. This module accepts up to a 60V input, and is configured in a 4:1 input-to-output ratio. It offers a digital controller with multiple-time programmability (MTP), which can be easily configured to quickly bring up the system and nimbly adapt to system requirements.

Features

  • Input Voltage Range: 40V to 60V
  • 4:1 Input-to-Output Ratio
  • Power Level: Up to 750W
  • Power Density: 3310W/in3
  • LLC Topology
  • Compatible with Serial Interface
  • Built-In MTP to Store Custom Configurations
    • VIN Under-Voltage Lockout (UVLO)
    • VOUT Over-Voltage Protection (OVP) and Under-Voltage Protection (UVP)
    • OCP_TDC/SPIKE
    • Over-Temperature Protection (OTP)
  • GUI Configuration Software Provided
  • Great for High-Current and High-Power Applications

Figure 5: MPC12106-54-0750

Dimensions
24mmx18mmx8.6mm

Part Number VIN (V) VOUT Range (V) Power Density (W/in3) POUT (W) Peak Efficiency (%) Efficiency @ 300W (%)
MPC12106-54-0750-xxxx 40 to 60 10 to 15 3310 750 98.1 97.5

MPC12109-54 - High-Efficiency, Non-Isolated, Fixed-Ratio Digital DC/DC 1000W Power Module

The MPC12109-54 is an open-frame digital DC/DC power module with continuous power up to 1000W. This module accepts up to a 60V input, and is configured in a 4:1 input-to-output ratio. It offers a digital controller with multiple-time programmability (MTP), which can be easily configured to quickly bring up the system and nimbly adapt to system requirements. The 8mm maximum height makes it suitable for many applications, such as OAM form factor boards.

Features

  • Input Voltage Range: 40V to 60V
  • 4:1 Input-to-Output Ratio
  • Power Level: Up to 1000W
  • Power Density: 5100W/in3
  • LLC Topology
  • Compatible with Serial Interface
  • Supports Parallel Operation
  • Built-In MTP to Store Custom Configurations
    • VIN Under-Voltage Lockout (UVLO)
    • VOUT Over-Voltage Protection (OVP) and Under-Voltage Protection (UVP)
    • OCP_TDC/SPIKE
    • Over-Temperature Protection (OTP)
  • GUI Configuration Software Provided
  • Great for High-Current and High-Power Applications
  • Pin-to-Pin Compatible with Competitors

Figure 6: MPC12109

Dimensions
22.85mmx17.35mmx7.8mm

Part Number VIN (V) VOUT Range (V) Power Density (W/in3) POUT (W) Peak Efficiency (%) Efficiency @ 300W (%)
MPC12109-54-1000-02C0 40 to 60 10 to 15 5100 1000 97.3 96.3

Second-Stage Solution: Digital Multi-Phase Controller + Intelli-PhaseTM or Intelli-Module

MPS has a robust product portfolio of digital multi-phase controllers and Intelli-PhaseTM and Intelli-Module solutions. For more information, visit https://www.monolithicpower.com/en/products/ power-management/data-center.html

Figure 7: Second-Stage Digital Multi-Phase Controller + Intelli-PhaseTM or Intelli-Module Block Diagram

  • Digital Multi-Phase Controller Features:
    • Patented Constant-On-Time (COT) Control
    • Multiple Loops, Flexible Phase Assignment
    • Interface Options: SVID, SVI2/3, OVR, or Serial Interface
    • Fault Handling and Telemetry Capabilities
  • Intelli-PhaseTM Features:
    • Family of Devices Ranges from 10A to 90A
    • Wide fsw Range: Balance between Transient and Efficiency
    • Built-In ZCD, OCP, NOCP, OTP, and SCP
    • Minimal External Components
  • Intelli-Module Features:
    • High Power Density in Space-Constrained Applications
    • Flexible Output Assignment
    • Support Parallel Operation for Higher Power Delivery
    • Optimized for Top-Side Cooling
Power Structure Type of Product Part Number Part Description
12V & MPS's new 4V to 6V architecture Digital multi-phase controller

MP2888A

MP2882 (contact MPS for samples)

MP2972 (contact MPS for samples)

Single-loop, 10-phase multi-phase controller

Dual-loop, 16-phase digiatal multi-phase controller

Dual-loop, 12-phase digital multi-phase controller

12V architecture

DrMOS

Intelli-Module

MP87006

MP87000

MPC22163 (contact MPS for samples)

MPC22164 (contact MPS for samples)

16V, 90A Intelli-PhaseTM in 4mmx6mm package

16V, 90A Intelli-PhaseTM in 5mmx6mm package

16V, 130A Intelli-Module in 9mmx10mmx8mm footprint

16V, 130A Intelli-Module in 9mmx10mmx4mm footprint

MPS's new 4V to 6V architecture DrMOS

MP86972 (contact MPS for samples)

MP86976 (contact MPS for samples)

12V, 60A Intelli-PhaseTM in 3mmx6mm package

7V, 70A Intelli-PhaseTM in 3mmx6mm package


Power Structure 12V legacy & MPS's new 4V to 6V architecture
Type of Product Part Description
Digital multi-phase controller

MP2888A

Single-loop, 10-phase multi-phase controller

MP2882 (contact MPS for samples)

Dual-loop, 16-phase digital multi-phase controller

MP2972 (contact MPS for samples)

Dual-loop, 12-phase digital multi-phase controller

Power Structure 12V legacy architecture
Type of Product Part Description

DrMOS

Intelli-Module

MP87006

16V, 90A Intelli-PhaseTM in 4mmx6mm package

MP87000

16V, 90A Intelli-PhaseTM in 5mmx6mm package

MPC22163 (contact MPS for samples)

16V, 130A Intelli-Module in 9mmx10mmx8mm footprint

MPC22164 (contact MPS for samples)

16V, 130A Intelli-Module in 9mmx10mmx4mm footprint

Power Structure MPS's new 4V to 6V architecture
Type of Product Part Description
DrMOS

MP86972 (contact MPS for samples)

12V, 60A Intelli-PhaseTM in 3mmx6mm package

(contact for sample)

MP86976 (contact MPS for samples)

7V, 70A Intelli-PhaseTM in 3mmx6mm package

(contact for sample)


MPC22163-130 - Two-Phase Intelli-Module with Quiet SwitcherTM Technology

The MPC22163 is a non-isolated, step-down power module with 130A of continuous peak output current. This module integrates driver MOSFETs and an inductor in a compact package to save layout space and achieve a higher power density. It is scalable for many modules in parallel, up to 2kW+ of power. The 8mm maximum height makes it suitable for many applications, such as OAM form factor boards.

Features

  • Input Voltage Range: 4V to 17V
  • Output Voltage Range: 0.5V to 2V
  • 130A Output Current
  • Top-Side Cooling Package
  • Current Sense: Accu-SenseTM
  • Temperature Sense
  • Current Limit Protection
  • Supports Parallel Operation
  • Over-Temperature Protecution (OTP)
  • Fault Reporting
  • Common Footprint LGA-72 (9mmx10mm) Package

Figure 8: MP22163-130

Dimensions
9mmx10mmx7.5mm

Part Number VIN (V) VOUT Range (V) Power Density (W/in3) POUT (W) Peak Efficiency (%) Efficiency @ 300W (%)
MPC22163-130 4 to 16 0.5 to 2 130 600 to 1500 2475 88.7

MPC22166-130 - Two-Phase Intelli-Module with Quiet SwitcherTM Technology

The MPC22166 is a non-isolated, step-down power module with 130A of continuous peak output current. This module integrates driver MOSFETs and an inductor in a compact package to save layout space and achieve a higher power density. It is scalable for many modules in parallel, up to 2kW+ of power. The 4mm maximum height makes it suitable for many applications, such as vertical power delivery and PCIe form factor boards.

Features

  • Input Voltage Range: 4V to 16V
  • Output Voltage Range: 0.5V to 2V
  • 130A Output Current
  • Top-Side Cooling Package
  • Current Sense: Accu-SenseTM
  • Temperature Sense
  • Current Limit Protection
  • Supports Parallel Operation
  • Over-Temperature Protecution (OTP)
  • Fault Reporting
  • Common Footprint LGA-72 (9mmx10mm) Package
  • Extremely Low Height: Maximum 4mm
  • Pin-to-Pin Compatible with the MPC22163

Figure 9: MP22166-130

Dimensions
9mmx9.9mmx3.9mm

Part Number VIN (V) VOUT Range (V) Power Density (W/in3) POUT (W) Peak Efficiency (%) Efficiency @ 300W (%)
MPC22166-130 4 to 16 0.5 to 2 130 600 to 1200 5034 90


MPC22167 - 130A, Two-Phase, Intelli-ModuleTM with Quiet SwitcherTM Technology

The MPC22167 is a non-isolated, step-down power module with 130A of continuous peak output current. This module integrates driver MOSFETs and an inductor in a compact package to save board space and achieve a higher power density. It is scalable for many modules in parallel, up to 2kW or more of power. The 8mm maximum height makes it suitable for a wide range of applications, such as OAM form factor boards.

Features

  • Input Voltage Range: 10V to 16V
  • Output Voltage Range: 0.5V to 2V
  • 130A Output Current
  • Top-Side Cooling Package
  • Current Sense: Accu-SenseTM
  • Temperature Sense
  • Current Limit Protection
  • Supports Parallel Operation
  • Over-Temperature Protecution (OTP)
  • Fault Reporting
  • Common Footprint LGA-72 (9mmx10mm) Package

Figure 10: MPC22167

Dimensions
9mmx9.9mmx7.65mm

Part Number VIN (V) VOUT Range (V) Power Density (W/in3) POUT (W) Peak Efficiency (%) Efficiency @ 300W (%)
MPC22167-130 4 to 16 0.5 to 2 130 500 to 1200 2475 91.3


MP2891 - Dual-Loop, OVR4i+ 16-Phase Controller

Features

  • Highest Phsaae Count
    • Dual-Loop, 16-Phase Controller Provides Power for NVIDIA PWM-VID Core Power
    • Max 16 Phases for Rail 1 and 8 Phases for Rail 2
  • Digital Control
    • Digital Loop Compensation and Load-Line Regulation
    • Nonlinear Control Reduces Output Capacitor Requirements for Transients
  • Digital Configurability and Monitoring
    • Compatible with Serial Interface
    • VOUT, IOUT, VIN, PIN, and Temperature Telemetry
    • Intelli-PhaseTM Fault Diagnosis
    • Integrated NVM to Store VR Configurations and for Black Box Capability
  • Design Flexibility
    • Switching Frequency Up to 3MHz
    • Automatic Phase-Shedding Improves Light-Load Efficiency
    • Configurable Voltage, Current, and Temperature Protection

Package: QFN-56 (7mmx7mm)



MPQ8645P – 16V, 30A, Scalable, Digital, Synchronous Step-Down Converter with Serial Interface

Features

  • Digital Point-of-Load (POL)
    • VOUT, IOUT, VIN, PIN, and Temperature Telemetry
    • Rich Feature Selection
    • User-Accessible NVM to Save Configurations
  • Flexible for Multiple Rails in System
    • Scalable Up to 8 Phases
    • Input Voltage Range: 3.1V to 16V
    • Supports 3.3V, 5V, and 12V Inputs
    • Supports Zero-ESR, MLCC Output Capacitors
    • Configurable Current Limit Offers Flexible Inductor Choice
  • Adaptive Constant-On-Time Control
    • Minimizes Number of Required Output Capacitors
    • 0.5% Accurate Reference

Package: TQFN-25 (4mmx5mm)


MP5048 – 60V, 15A, 7mΩ RDS(ON) Hot-Swap Intelli-Fuse Solution

Features:

  • 60V E-Fuse with Highest Industry Current
  • Flexible for Multiple Phases in System
    • Input Voltage Range: 24V to 60V
    • Scalable for Standalone or Parallel Operation
    • Configurable Output Voltage Soft Start Supports Inrush Current Control
    • 1.5% IMON Reporting Accuracy Supports Accurate System Power Reporting
  • Full Support Protections
    • Configurable Over-Current Protection (OCP) Limit
    • Accurate On-Die Temperature Sensing and Thermal Shutdown
    • Pin-Configurable Latch-Off and Hiccup Protections
    • Fault Pin Indicator (FLTB)

Package: QFN-30 (5mmx5mm)

Second-Stage Module vs. Traditional Discrete Solution

As the current demand of CPUs and GPUs increases and package sizes expand, designers are often left with very small areas on the board to fit multiple phases of voltage regulators (VRs). The Intelli-Module approach to VR design increases power density by 2.5x and allows placement of the voltage regulators closer to the processor to reduce PDN losses.

Intelli-Modules: DrMOS + Inductor DrMOS (Discrete Approach)
Intelli-Module Solution Offers the Best Combo of Efficiency and Size
90mm2 Layout Area
Traditional VR Solution
225mm2 Layout Area

OAM Form Factor Power Solutions

MPS provides end-to-end power solutions following OCP standards for common designs, such as OAM form factors. These capabilities are demonstrated with this reference design (max 2000A), which features our 4:1 first-stage modules and second-stage Intelli-Modules.


2000A Reference Design

Specs:

  • 54V Input Voltage, 0.8V Nominal Output Voltage
  • 1000A Output Current, Max 2000A
  • Embedded Load Slammer for Transient Testing
  • Second Stage Uses the MP2891 16-Phase Controller and the MPC22167, the Next Generation of the MPC22163 Module with the Same Footprint and Higher Efficiency
  • This 2000A EVB Is Now Available for Sampling

AI Accelerator Card

  • OAM
  • SXM
  • etc.

Adapting Power Solutions to the Increased Current Requirement of AI Processors